Cannabis produces phyto cannabinoids in a carboxylic acid form that are not orally active at least at the CB-1 receptor sites, because they don’t readily pass the blood brain barrier in their polar form.

To enable them to pass the blood brain barrier, they must first be decarboxylated, to remove the COOH carboxyl group of atoms, which exits in the form of H20 and CO2.

Decarboxylation occurs naturally with time and temperature, as a function of drying, but we can shorten the amount of time required considerably, by adding more heat.  The more heat, the faster it occurs, within reasonable ranges, and in fact occurs spontaneously when the material is burned or vaporized.

There is another mechanism at play however, which suggests that we need to control the decarboxylation temperatures carefully.

When we heat cannabis to convert the THCA and CBDA into THC and CBD, we are also converting THC to CBN at a faster rate.  At about 70% decarboxylation, we actually start converting THC to CBN at a faster rate than we are converting THCA to THC, so as you can see by the following graph, after about 70% decarboxylation, the levels of THC actually start to fall sharply.

That of course means that the CBN also begins to rise and the medication is becoming more sedative.

Thank you Jump 117 for this excellent graph!

Decarboxylation Graph-1-1

Decarboxylation graph

Another fly in the ointment, is that we can never know for sure exactly what the starting state of decarboxylation is, so the times at temperature shown on the graphs are an average.

We can’t expect dry material placed in an oven at any given temperature to be that uniform temperature throughout instantly upon placing it in a heated oven, nor know for sure the state of decarboxylation by simple observation.

Decarboxylating plant material, also alters the taste (roasted/toasted), which some find less agreeable, and of course decarboxylating also evaporates away the smaller Monoterpenes and Sequiterpenes alcohols, phenols, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, and esters.

The good news is that it is dirt simple to monitor the state of cannabis oil decarboxylation placed in a 121C/250F hot oil bath, because you can watch the CO2 bubble production.

Just like the curves suggest, CO2 bubble production will proceed at its own observable rate. By keeping the puddle of oil lightly stirred on the bottom and in the corners of the pot (I use a bamboo skewer), so as to keep the bubbles broken free and floating to the top, you can tell exactly when the bubble formation suddenly tapers off at the top of the curve.

That is the point that we take it out of the oil for maximum head effect, and we leave it in until all bubbling stops, if we want a more sedative night time med.

Here are a couple pictures of what oil looks like when boiling off the residual butane.  Residual butane or alcohol produces larger, randomly sized bubbles, and is fully purged, when they cease.

I am seemingly missing the middle picture of the CO2 bubbles, so I will add it later, but the second picture shows what fully decarboxylated oil looks like.

Residual solvent bubbles above:

Quiescent oil.

650 responses to this post.

  1. Is it possible to heat it too long? I am using a magnetic stir plate and the cavitation appears to form tiny bubbles like you would expect to see while decarbing. Would I see spikes or drops in my analysis if it were to be heated for too long.

    I do occasionally stop the stir rod to check to see if bubbles stop forming, and I stopped the process when I had observed that the reaction had slowed dramatically

    Magnetic stir hot plate
    double boiled oil bath pyrex/labflask
    stir rpm about 1k

    Testing results

    Thanks again for your help guys, don’t know what I would do without this place.


    • It is possible to heat too long if you are trying to maximize THC and CBD.

      Note that about 70% decarboxylation, that the curve falls off sharply. If you are watching the process and keeping accumulated bubbles minimized, you can tell from the new bubble formation, precisely when you hit the top of that curve and start down the other side.

      Carla has at least one patient that wants his evening meds decarboxylated 100% at the very least, and prefers meds from a vapor pipe’s reclaim.



  2. Posted by Nick on October 17, 2016 at 9:55 AM

    I made a batch of tincture, which I’ve done successfully many times. Unfortunately, this time I forgot to decarb the dry cannabis. If I heat the solution to 105F, will it decarboxylate? Or, can THC-A not decarboxylate while dissolved in alcohol?


  3. Posted by Austin on October 16, 2016 at 8:43 AM

    I recently bought a wax pen for shatter. I’ve noticed that it barely gets me high, would decarbing my shatter improve this?


  4. Posted by Marcel on October 14, 2016 at 2:22 AM

    Hi there,

    Do I understand correctly that if I have evaporated the solvent and added some olive oil for the RSO, leave it in a babybottle heater for a while at appr. 90 degrees celsius until no little bubbles pop up anymore, it is always at the max of the THCA-THC conversion? Even if i don’t go towards higher temperatures like 120 degrees? From the graph it seems that temperatures around 80-94 degrees don’t reach the max amount of THC unless you heat it for a very long time, thats a bit confusing since after maybe 2 hours of 90 degrees the bubbling definately stops and the oil looks absolutely flat. Or maybe the cannabis already transforms a fair amount of THCA into THC during the drying period of 2 weeks after havesting the product?

    Would it change anything if I add more heat to the oil (or the material before the extraction) in an oven to get the max THC result or is no bubbles still the best signal to look for?

    Also, it seems as if every time I make oil using fresh material of only 2 weeks old, there is a sticky stiff in the oil, it’s much thicker and can be scooped out with a spoon, when it cools off it’s pretty solid black stuff like burnt sugar, is this just plant material or useful cannabinoids? Thanks a lot for your help guys!



  5. […] many years the inhabitants of the internet have treated this graph as gospel. A quick review readily shows why it’s not a reliable […]


  6. Posted by slips on October 3, 2016 at 11:36 PM

    I just tried 140c for 7 mins feel instantly stoned O_O WTF will update on effects and experiments as and ehrenI get a chance


  7. […] this caused my returns to be on the wet side and risked more THC converting to CBN instead of THCA.8 This THC-to-CBN conversion does impact the potency and the qualitative properties of the medicine. […]


  8. […] this caused my returns to be on the wet side and risked more THC converting to CBN instead of THCA.8 This THC-to-CBN conversion does impact the potency and the qualitative properties of the medicine. […]


  9. […] many years the inhabitants of the internet have treated this graph as gospel. A quick review readily shows why it’s not a reliable […]


  10. Posted by Joe R on September 6, 2016 at 6:44 PM

    Based on this graph, is it safe to assume that using a food dehydrator would yield the smallest amount of THC over time? In other words, is heat the best way to extract the highest mg/g of THC? Are there alternative methods of decarboxylation that don’t involve heat (for example, has anyone tried pressure)? What about a chemical reaction?


  11. […] If you’re into weed food or weed science, I think you’ll love it. When I found this article at Skunk Pharms Research about decarboxylation, things started making a lot more sense. They shared this handy little chart that shows the rate of […]


  12. […] this caused my returns to be on the wet side and risked more THC converting to CBN instead of THCA.8 This THC-to-CBN conversion does impact the potency and the qualitative properties of the medicine. […]


  13. […] Decarboxylation | Skunk Pharm Research LLC – Hi, I am wondering about decarboxylation WHEN MAKING RSO for medicinal purposes (specifically for cancer patients). I use an electric rice cooker with adjustable … […]


  14. What elements in the THC concentrated products, such as Shatter, wax, etc., are responsible for the color?

    Time -—-— Temperature The storing condition, age of the material (trim, flower), overall quality of beginning product, and post processing vacuum oven tech may play a role in determining the color of your concentrate. Ever noticed how “live resin”, t…


  15. Posted by kim on July 10, 2016 at 1:28 AM

    The graph used above had been debunked before as it apples to open hexane extract, hee’a a good handbook on decarb that explains the process on decarb very well.


    • Kim,

      Thanks for posting this good information. The NOVA decarb device looks very interesting. I would like to see some unbiased reviews of it before I shell out $250.


      • Posted by jkwilborn on July 24, 2016 at 7:48 AM

        Went to a seminar this past weekend at White Mountain Dispensary in Sun City Arizona. The company has a growing eatable business:) All are certified chefs and the seems to know the technical. They had great claims for this device, but the $250 price tag is way out of my range. It does have a sealed chamber so the terps are maintained within the vessel during cool down. I assume something happens to them, like reabsorbed? If I could live without $250 I’d have one for sure.


        • After giving the NOVA some more thought, I’ll pass.

          NOVA says that the entire process — heating up, decarbing, and cooling down — takes about 1 hour and 15 minutes — in a sealed container.

          I’m very pleased with my method of decarbing; the only thing missing with my method is that I have done mine in my home oven on a baking sheet, not a sealed container, so the terpenes evaporate.

          I can see that my method has room for improvement.

          I’ve since purchased 3 stainless steel containers with silicone lids from Amazon, and the next time I decarb my cannabis, I plan on using one of those sealed containers. I’m not sure of the temps and times that I’ll use, but they will be consistent with those that I have previously used which have given me excellent results.

          I’ll have lab tests done (which won’t test for terpenes) before and after decarb and I’ll post the results.

          I’d be real surprised if that doesn’t do as good a job as the NOVA, and at $29.99 for the set, it is considerably less expensive.


          • Posted by Bryndan L McCracken on August 11, 2016 at 8:54 PM

            You need a way to release pressure from those sealed containers or you’re going to have an explosion on your hands.

          • Bryndan,

            I couldn’t reply directly to your post, so I hope you see this.

            Thanks for the heads up.

            I plan on drying the herb with the container lid off, then putting on the lid. I don’t know what would cause an explosion. If pressure does build up, the lids are only made of silicone, so I think that, at worst, the lid would just pop off.

            I’ll keep an eye on it since it is now on my radar. I should be able to see the lid bulging out if the pressure is increasing.

    • Posted by Logan on August 14, 2016 at 12:09 PM

      I just went through this entire article, hoping to find a better oven method more effective than the methods described in the graph above, but it ended up being a very informative sales pitch from Ardent’s website. While I really want a Nova Can and I’m sure it’s a fantastic product, I’ll stick to the oven and info above for free until I can afford the $250 price tag.


  16. […] this caused my returns to be on the wet side and risked more THC converting to CBN instead of THCA.8 This THC-to-CBN conversion does impact the potency and the qualitative properties of the medicine. […]


  17. Hi, I am wondering about decarboxylation WHEN MAKING RSO for medicinal purposes (specifically for cancer patients). I use an electric rice cooker with adjustable temperature, and since it takes several hours to evaporate the solvent (isopropyl), I generaly set it at 90°C (194°F) and leave it there for about 8-10 hours (which is the time it takes to fully evaporate the solvent, depending on the total amount of oil I make in the batch). Based on your knowledge, do you think this process will achieve an optimal decarboxylation, or should I still turn up the heat above 106°C (223°F) for half and hour somewhere during the process to achieve the decarb? Remember I want to avoid maximize the THC degrading into CBN. However, after reading some info on decarb, I am not sure now if it can be achieved at all with temperatures below 106°C (223°F), even if heated during several hours. Thanks in advance for your response.


    • Correction: “Remember I want to maximize the THC and avoid it from degrading into CBN”. Sorry but I am not a native English speaker…


  18. several hours at 360F? That is way too much. Temp is way too high and time is way too long.
    Optimum decarboxylation temps are between 230 to 266F and would likely take no more than an hour (though other factors, like quantity and form, may alter this). You will possibly vaporise THC at 360F and what is left will probably be largely degraded to CBN.
    When I saw your comment advising someone to cook an extract for several hours at 360F I wondered if you were purposely trying to sabotage them. Not only is the information you gave wrong but anyone following such advice would likely ruin their medicine.


  19. Posted by dev on June 11, 2016 at 11:58 AM

    question….so this method decarbs after extraction? i usually decarb prior to alcohol wash but hard to tell the rate by doing this (put the broken up material on a baking sheet in the over). so if i skip decarbing first and just produce oil by washing in alcohol i can decarb after? when i’m bubbling off the remaining alcohol i just let it simmer longer till i see the co2 bubbles? any reply would be appreciated. thanks


    • I’ve decarbed after alcohol wash and it took forever for the bubbling to cease. Read my post of May 20, 2016 for details of decarbing before alcohol wash. Temperatures, times, and lots of info on this subject.


      • Posted by dev on August 5, 2016 at 9:27 PM

        Hi Jackson,

        After the rso/cbd oil is made. In your opinion what is the best way for it too reach the brain to fight cancer.

        Its pure oil. Not mixed with anything.



        • dev,

          Sorry, but that is my area of expertise. Hopefully someone more knowledgeable will reply to your question.


        • sublingual – under the thug. But just ingesting will work as well, You should try to consume 30 grams per month for two months if your cancer is in it,s higher stages. Start slow and build tolerance, after two weeks try to be up to a gram a day. Using the oil in your rectum, you way not have the high feel that some people can’t tolerate.

          This is just a suggestion I’m not a doctor, but a lot of this info is available online.


  20. […] is a degraded form of THC. You can get this by heating cannabis up a little extra during the decarboxylation process. Or, as suggests, you can dry your favorite strain in the sun for a bit to […]


  21. Posted by bob on June 3, 2016 at 8:39 AM


    i m using butane in a term machine to make oil then vacuum processing it at 100c for about 12 hours to remove residual butane..

    i want to decarb i have run at about 12 hours at 100c is the decarb done???
    or do i have to heat at higher temp to do this????


    • as long as that is 100c (not 100F) then 12 hour at that temp should be well more than enough to decarb. In fact probably too much. It is also far more than you need to purge the butane.


      • Posted by bob on June 4, 2016 at 10:52 AM

        thanks for reply

        thats what i thought too

        i put material in vac at night take out in morning


        maybe will try to shorten to 4 hours????


  22. Decarbing Frank’s Gift Cannabis

    I’ve been searching for a reliable way to decarboxylate medical cannabis for a while now, and there seems to be no consensus as to exactly how to do it. Different websites and forums all have a different take on the best temperature to use, how long to heat it, how to prepare it etc. My search finally led me to a British patent for a process of liquid CO2 extraction of resin from cannabis, in which they mentioned how they decarbed their samples and, most importantly, they documented the resulting lab analysis of 4 different amount of time and 3 different temperatures, and the differing results on THCa, THC, CBDa, CBD, and CBN. To me, this is a wealth of information. Here is a link to the patent:

    The 3 temps are in Celsius and translate to Fahrenheit as follows: 105° C = 221° F, 120° C = 248° F, and 140° C = 284° F.

    My takeaway from this long, very technical paper is the following 2 sentences:

    Chemovar producing primarily CBD is 1 hour at 120° C. or 0.5 hour at 140° C.
    Chemovar producing primarily THC to minimise CBN formation, is 1 to 2 hours at 105° C. or 1 hour at 120° C.

    Translation: heat your cannabis in a 120° C (248° F) oven for an hour and you are good to go. Regardless of if your cannabis is high in THC or CBD this will work very well. So I did just that (sort of) and then had the cannabis analyzed at OG Analytical in Eugene, OR. Here is what I did, the lab analysis of cured Frank’s Gift bud, and the decarbed Frank’s Gift bud.

    In the patent, they say it is preferable to dry the herb at a lower temp, then decarb it at a higher temp, but since I had put a pizza stone in the oven to try for a more even temp, I dried it and decarbed it at the same temp.

    5/10/16 I started with 36 g total; removed 1.124 g for analytical lab testing. That left @35 g before removing stems, @ 34 g after removing .9 g of stems.

    9:00 AM I put a 16″ pizza stone (9.5 lbs./4.3 Kilograms) in the oven and preheated to 250° F. I used a Farberware oven probe (laying on the pizza stone) to get an accurate temperature. It showed that it took @ 90 minutes to get up to temp.

    I was aiming for a temp of 250° F, but since my oven fluctuates about 20° F, I could not achieve this. After almost 3 hours of screwing around with the oven, turning the temperature dial up and down, trying to get it to a stable temp, I gave up, and settled on a setting of 245° F.

    I broke up the buds into small pieces (it was very sticky), put it on an aluminum baking sheet, and put it in the oven at 11:45AM. I left it in the oven for 20 minutes to dry completely. It was not sticky at all after drying it. I crumbled up the buds in my hand (very easy) and wound up with mostly powdered bud.

    I returned the baking sheet to the oven and waited until the oven probe said 250° F, which took about 15 minutes. I left it in the oven for another hour, removed it, let it cool down a little, and weighed it. It now weighed 28 g, so it lost about 6 g of moisture (17.6%). I took out 1.15 g for the lab. Here are the lab results:

    Before Decarbing

    THCa = 4.8%
    Δ9-THC = 0.9%
    CBDa = 9.9%
    CBD = 0.6%
    CBN = <0.1%

    After Decarbing

    THCa = <0.1%
    Δ9-THC = 4.8%
    CBDa = <0.1%
    CBD = 9.1%
    CBN = 0.2%

    I am thrilled with the results – all of the THCa got converted to THC, all the CBDa got converted to CBD, and very little of the THC got degraded to CBN. Not too shabby.

    Next time I wouldn't mess with the oven temp. I would just set it at 245° F and leave it alone.

    If you look at Table 5 in the patent, you'll see that there is quite a bit of leeway in time before the THC starts to seriously degrade into CBN, so leaving it in the oven for 1-2 hours at 250° F would not degrade very much THC (4.1% after 1 hour and 6.7% after 2 hours).

    Miscellaneous notes: Franks Gift organically grown outdoors, harvested on 10/4/15, dried in 50% humidity, 70° F temp for 5 days (stems snapped at that point), then placed in 2 quart canning jars with a 62% Boveda pack for curing. It has been in the jar for 7 months.

    I hope this is helpful.



    • Posted by redturtle984 on June 15, 2016 at 4:40 PM

      Here is full decarbing of extract. The temp is raised slowly until 360F is achieved. This process takes several hours from start to finish but converts all of the acid form to bio available.


      • Sorry, but I couldn’t make any sense of the video.

        The method that I outlined converts all acid form to bio active form and it doesn’t take hours. Also, 360 degrees F is way too high; yeah, you are getting your extract decarbed, but you will wind up with mostly CBN. What’s wrong with decarbing your herb first, then making your extract from it?

        I’ll stick to my method — it’s simple, and it works.


    • Hi Jackson, thanks a lot for your wonderful post. I was wondering about decarbolixation when making RSO for medicinal purposes. I use an electric rice cooker with adjustable temperature, and since it takes several hours to evaporate the solvent, I generaly set it at 90°C (194°F) and leave it there for about 8-10 hours (which is the time it takes to fully evaporate the solvent, depending on the amount of oil batch). Based on your knowledge, do you think this process will achieve an optimal decarboxylation, or should I still turn up the heat above 106°C (223°F) for half and hour during the process to achieve the decarb? Remember I want to avoid the THC degrading into CBN. Thanks in advance for your response.


      • Marcos,

        I too make RSO for medicinal purposes. First I decarb the herb in my oven, then do 2, 5-minute rinses using 190 proof Everclear. Then I put the solvent in a double boiler and heat until the solvent is evaporated.

        The latest batch that I made took about 2 1/2 hours total; about 1 1/2 hours to dry and decarb the herb (as detailed in my previous post), and another hour in making the RSO.

        As to your question, Isopropyl alcohol boils at 82.6° C, and, the temperature of the solvent will not go above its boiling point unless it is under pressure, so it doesn’t matter what temperature you set your rice cooker at, the solvent will still be boiling at 82.6° C. It will boil FASTER at a higher temperature setting, but that’s all. If you want to achieve a higher temperature, you need to wait until the solvent is boiled off, then heat the remaining RSO at a higher temperature.

        I guess that I’m all about lab testing to verify that a certain procedure achieves the desired results. Since we don’t know how much decarbing is being achieved in the evaporation process at 82.6° C for 8-10 hours, it would be pure speculation to say how to achieve complete decarboxylation without degrading the THC to CBN.

        Could you try decarbing your herb as I previously described and then making your RSO in the rice cooker? I think that would achieve your goal.


    • Posted by Dev on June 26, 2016 at 1:14 AM

      Hi Jackson

      Thanks for your decarb findings, this method of decarbing first in the oven seems to be the one i would probably do.

      Once its decarbed in the oven, could i then use the decarbed stuff for making rso? Or should i let the rso method decarb during the rso process.

      Am eager to make some oil for someone.



      • Dev,

        I see too many problems with the idea that one can decarb the RSO in a rice cooker, double boiler or on a coffee warmer.

        I make RSO for medicinal purposes. First I decarb the herb in my oven, then do 2, 5-minute rinses using 190 proof Everclear. Then I put the solvent in a double boiler and heat until the solvent is completely evaporated.

        Here are my notes from the latest batch that I made (using 2 ounces of herb):

        Making RSO 6/22/2016 Using Frank’s Gift cannabis bud.

        Note: Started with 60 g of bud, removed 1.225 g of stems, which left < 59 g of bud. Dried in 245 degree oven for 45 minutes, broke up dried bud and decarbed it for 60 minutes in 245 degree oven. After coming out of the oven, it weighed 51 g. Total time for weighing, removing stems, breaking up, drying, breaking up the dried bud, decarbing, and re-weighing was @ 2 1/2 hrs.

        4:00 PM: Put 51 g decarbed herb in 1 qt. measuring cup and added 400 ml Everclear 190 proof grain alcohol. Mixed for @ 5 minutes. Filtered through muslin bag. Repeated the process using another 400 ml Everclear.

        4:25 PM: I put the Everclear mixture in the double boiler (did this outdoors for safety).

        5:35 PM: Mixture completely reduced, and no bubble activity; Took off burner.

        6:00 PM: Finished putting in syringe and 2 gel caps.

        Total RSO = @ 9.0 ml; put @ 8.75 ml in a 10 ml syringe, plus .248 ml in 1 gel cap & .094 ml in another.

        Total time to make RSO (NOT including the time to decarb the herb) was right at 2 hours, including putting in syringe & gel caps.

        Total time for decarbing and making RSO was 4 1/2 hrs.

        I hope this is helpful,



        • Posted by dev on August 10, 2016 at 11:58 PM


          I have been drying and burping my jars now for 3ish months. Maybe 4. So didnt dry in oven. Just decarbed for 1 hour.

          I also covered my tray with foil to keep terpene in.

          Just a couple of questions please, hope you maybe able to help answer.

          I decarbed at 240 F for 60 mins. I used 2 separate oven thermometers to make sure temp was correct.

          Its browner but with tinges of green still. Will that be ok?

          My oven is a fan assisted oven. But temp was 240. Will that matter.

          Plan is to make cbd rso oil this weekend.

          Hope to hear from you.



          • dev,

            When I decarbed mine, I dried it in the oven first and the herb had no green on it after decarbing; it had completely turned brown, so I’m thinking that the green parts of your herb wasn’t completely dry, and therefore probably did not get decarbed completely.

            The purpose of pre-drying is to eliminate any moisture that would delay the herb from getting to the proper temperature.

            If it were me, I would stick it back in the oven for another hour, just to be sure.

            I’m all about lab testing to verify that I got the results that I wanted, but in the absence of doing that, I think another hour would pretty much insure a complete decarb.

        • Posted by Dev on August 12, 2016 at 4:07 PM

          Think your right. I will stick it back in oven 118 degree Celsius for about another 40 -60 mins.

          My house stinks now .

          Is there any other way to decarb? Before making oil. Or is oven best.

          Think will also maybe use less on baking tray so its more even



          • Dev,

            I think that decarbing in the oven is the best way, others have different opinions.

            I plan on using a stainless steel container with a silicone lid the next time I do a decarb (which will probably be several months) and have the herb tested before and after. I believe the lid will eliminate any odor and will keep the terpenes from evaporating, or at least keep them from escaping the container.

            I think it is important to dry the herb completely before doing the decarb and to have room around the herb for the heat to penetrate it. Decarbing is all about time and temperature, but if the herb is too densely packed, then the heat will not penetrate it completely and hence will not decarb it completely.

        • Posted by dev on August 12, 2016 at 4:20 PM

          Hi Jackson,
          When i decarbed. I covered my herb with foil.

          Then waited about an hour.

          Is it necessary to use a foil. Whats it for. Could herb be decarbed without a foil cover?

          Am going to re decarb.

          But with my other herb i shall dry then decarb like in your post.



          • Hey Dev,

            The foil might keep some terpenes from evaporating, but I doubt it is very effective. I haven’t used foil at all when I have decarbed in the past.

    • Does CBD degrade to CBN too ? I would like to remove THC from my co2 Hemp paste. I have 22% CBD+CBDa and 2% THC + THCa. What do you think about heating it in 145 until THC degrade to CBN.


  23. Posted by SdNative79 on May 14, 2016 at 10:11 PM

    How do I decarboxilate cold extracted bubble hash?


    • Posted by Tony on June 14, 2016 at 6:46 AM

      If you intend to smoke it you don’t need to do anything, the burning will decarb your hash. To cure follow the heating instructions above. It’s exactly the same substance, just in a different form.


  24. Posted by Dawn on May 9, 2016 at 10:33 PM

    I have neuro Lyme Disease it has changed the white matter of my brain I have been deathly ill for almost a decade now from Lyme and other tick Bourne illnesses and was recently bit again and started having all sorts of neuro symptoms. I am sure this article is simple and to the point but my brain isn’t comprehending much of anything since my Lyme went neuro. I need help could you email me and explain this to me in simpler terms and which way would be best for me the head or the sadative. I mean I know I would want the sadative to sleep but which is more healing?? I am having massive headaches, super nausea, vomiting, I haven’t ate hardly any real food since thanksgiving which cause damage me to develop type 2 diabetes it is all I can do to choke down meal replacement shakes. I am so lost. Dawn


    • Posted by Dawn on May 9, 2016 at 10:36 PM

      I still haven’t even been able to read my discharge papers from the ER a couple weeks ago. I am completely exhausted. I am terrified of losing more of my brain!


  25. Posted by Stephen Weglein on May 9, 2016 at 2:28 PM

    After ‘knowing’ for decades that THC deteriorates to CBN rather easily, and care has to be taken to avoid this …. I have seen here results here that indicate that THC deteriorates to CBN under heat, very very slowly …. is there any reason for this …. or was the degradation story, highly exaggerated, or just wrong? TIA


  26. Posted by FeatherMoe on May 9, 2016 at 1:36 PM

    Hi there!

    I made some infused oil in a crock pot and was wondering if the decarboxylation may have happened while it was cooking or I’d I should make a new batch. Cooked on high for at least one day (~270 degrees f) and low for 3 additional days.

    Thank you kindly in advance for your help!


    • cooked at 270f for a day? Not only will that be fully decarboxylated but it will probably be degraded too. Why cook it for so long at such a high temp? People either cook for long time at low temp or short time at high temp. You have cooked at high temp for a very long time and I don’t understand what possible reason there is for doing so.
      In short, I would imagine your oil is definitely fully decarbed. In future I would advise you to decarb prior to infusion and also not to cook cannabis oil at such a high temp for so long. There is no benefit to doing so and a lot of detriment


    • Posted by Rupi dupi on May 24, 2016 at 11:00 PM

      It may be better to crock pot it on low, around 180 f


  27. What would the best way to decarboxylate in order to maximize the conversion of CBDA to CBD?


  28. This is amazing! A friend sent me this link out of the blue and I’m a WordPresser too! Can’t wait to see what else you got!


  29. Posted by GR on April 28, 2016 at 9:39 PM

    I’m lil confused. Does this method uses oil to extract cannabinoids from plant material? If yes, why butane or alcohol bubbles? I thought those bubbles are CO2 being liberated as result of decarboxilation; not from residual solvents. Thanks, amazing website!


    • Posted by Benjamin Goldstein on April 30, 2016 at 11:07 AM

      People first extract the undecarboxylated THC from the bud using a solvent which produces BHO or some other form of extract. Then you can decarboxylate the oil. The bubbles are solvent, usually butane from the oil making process, that is boiling off. Decarboxylation is unrelated and converts THCA (non- psychoactive) to THC (psychoactive). You must decarboxylate bud before making edibles. Grind the bud finely and spread out as thinly as possible. Use the same time and temp the graph calls for,


  30. Posted by dave on April 26, 2016 at 4:09 PM

    So i do everclear extracts. Each one has been wildly different and i think the issue is in the way i decarb. Based on this graph im guessing most of my thc is turning into cbn giving me a sedative effect.

    that said, the optimal decarb time and temp to get max thc is what?

    looks like 7 min at 293 F ? can anyone confirm?


  31. […] THC and CBD, by a heating or drying process.  I will cover that issue under a separate thread on Decarboxylation, so as to not clutter this […]


  32. Posted by Dante Medici on April 21, 2016 at 4:46 PM

    What’s you opinion on cooking coconut oil and sunflower lecithin in mason jars no decarboxylation, vacuumed sealed and put in an immersion circulator at 197.5f for 44 hours then cranked to 200f for the last four hours? Straining when cooled. I feel decarboxylation will occur over the 48 our period. What say you?


  33. Posted by Stephen M on April 15, 2016 at 12:56 AM

    I have CO2 and acetone extracted RSO that is over 60% THC, but I want to convert as much THC into CBN. I also have Marinol (pure THC suspended in sesame oil) that would be even better to be able to convert the THC to CBN. The sesame oil smokes before the THC vaporizes, so it can’t be inhaled, only swallowed, which means it is converted from D-9-THC to 11-hydroxy-THC.As far as I know, you can’t extarct the THC from the sesame oil, but if it was converted the CBN, it would be useful for insomnia.

    Any thoughts or suggestions will be appreciated.


  34. Posted by Jake Wahl on March 30, 2016 at 12:39 PM

    Is there chart like the one above that follows for BHO decarboxylation?


  35. Posted by Lily Kunchak on March 22, 2016 at 3:48 AM

    Hi, Someone can share the decarboxylation graph of CBD (effect of time and tempreture).
    Thank you!


  36. Is it ok to decarb BHO in coco oil immedietely before using it in an edible?


    Should i decarb the BHO seperately then add to the coco oil?

    Thanks for your help.


  37. You don’t need to decarb if you are going to smoke or vape because the heat involved in vaporising cannabis causes instant decarboxylation anyway. In fact most people prefer not to decarb cannabis they are going to smoke as 1) it is unnecessary 2) a lot of terpenes are lost which makes it lose taste and smell.
    Decarboxylation is for eating (unless you want to eat the raw cannabinoid acids instead of the decarbed cannabinoids) but not needed if you are going to smoke or vape it


    • Thank you for the comments. What could I have done in my process differently to make the oil more potent.

      after freezing everything overnight, I soaked the mj in everclear in mason jar for about 36 hours. I continued the process as instructed to make a tincture. I strained the liquid (mj/everclear mixture) into another mason jar. With the lid off the jar, I placed mason jar with the mixture into a pot of water and heated until the everclear had evaporated/boiled off. I mixed with vg/pg. It has great odor, color greenish yellow. When I smoke it, I feel next to nothing. Please advise


      • Posted by Darby on February 17, 2016 at 3:28 PM

        Assuming your quick wash made a full extraction and that is a fair assumption at this point, the biggest variable is how much VG/PG you add. The less you add the more concentrated your vape juice. I haven’t played in this space so don’t know how much to add, if you you want it strong as little as possible to suspend the cannabinoid essential oil.


        • so soaking for 36 hours is sufficient?


          • Posted by Darby on February 17, 2016 at 3:49 PM

            More than. Look at the quick wash instructions elsewhere on this blog. I would do that, a two pass cold quick wash. Works great and keeps the chlorophyll down. Else do a water soak to clear the chlorophyll first, you can google for instructions. Last option is the lazy man way of letting it soak for 3 months so the chlorophyll breaks down, then filter and evaporate the ethanol. Note all of the above are methods for controlling chlorophyll. All of them do a full extraction of the cannabinoids. (well assuming you are using enough alcohol and I think you are.)

          • Can’t thank you enough.

          • Posted by Craig on March 10, 2016 at 8:32 AM

            U don’t need more than 3 or 4 mins with u mixing it though out then strain it off and evaporate off

      • Well I would personally not use a tincture making method for making oil. It depends what you want as to how best to make it. For example, making a potent oil for eating requires decarboxylation where as making a potent oil for vaping or smoking is best to avoid decarboxylation (as it is not necessary as it will occur from the heat of vaping it anyway).
        If you are making an oil then you should not do such long soaks. Quick wash methods require very brief exposure (QWISO, which is using Isopropyl alcohol should use 30 second washes, QWET which is using Ethanol a little longer, like 1 minute, 2 at most). These quick wash methods give you a very potent and pure oil (golden colour) but not great for yield and you will not get all the cannabinoids from the plant material this way. Alternatively you can do a more thorough wash where you go for 3 to 5 minute washes (closer to 3 for Iso, closer to 5 for Ethanol. The reason for the difference is that Ethanol is slightly less efficient than Isopropyl alcohol at extracting cannabinoids so requires a touch longer, but they work very similar to each other).
        This will give a darker oil that will have more chlorophyll, so will not be as pure and potent but you will get more of the cannabinoids out this way. So your choice in the wash time is between getting more oil but taking chlorophyll too, or getting less oil but much purer.
        But I would never soak the MJ for as long as 36 hours to make an oil That is way too long in my opinion. If you are making a tincture and want everything from the plant then long soaks may be worth considering, but for making an oil 5 minutes is maximum time you want to soak it (and probably not that long).
        Also, if you are smoking the oil then why mix it with VG or PG? Just smoke the oil pure. Such additions may serve a purpose if you are eating or even vaping it but for smoking it is better off being just pure oil. Personally if I want to smoke I just smoke the bud and don’t bother with the hassle of oil making. But as dabbing becomes more popular smoking oil is gaining more interest. But in my humble opinion pure oil is the only wayt to go. There is no point in diluting it.
        I don’t know why you felt nothing. From what you have described you should at least feel something. I know oil makers who make oil for smoking let the alcohol evaporate over the course of days with out heat, to avoid premature decarboxylation. But not sure what else to suggest (aside from shorter washes and not bothering with additional oils)
        Hope that helps a bit. Look at the QWISO or QWET (quick wash) methods for good ways to make nice smokeable oils. If you are not using heat to evaporate the solvent then spreading oil very thin to help the solvent purge properly is a good idea as you don’t want residue (even Ethanol residue) in the oil, especially if you are smoking it.


      • It is next to impossible to get a strong enough vape oil by starting with a tincture and diluting it with vg/pg. . You really need to start with a shatter and dilute. 1gram shatter to 2 grams solution will get you high with about 4 hits. Any thicker and you start clogging cartridges. Hope this helps. It took me a long time and a lot of wasted product to figure this out.


  38. I am certainly new to all this. I recently tried my hand at making an oil for my vape. I made a tincture with 3.5 g mj and everclear. I did not decarboxylate due to mixed instructions. Some said that the vape process will take care of the process of decarb. I have two questions. Do I need to decarb before making a vape oil?

    I followed the QWISO method on this post:

    If so, is there any way to recover? I now have about 5 mL of oil, but have not tried it yet.

    Thank you


  39. Posted by DropDeadFred on February 16, 2016 at 5:50 AM

    Original poster never updated the second picture, you’re killing me smalls!

    People like me use your genius research as a guideline and if its lacking…we have to guess.

    Help me out, please? I have yet to try a hot oil bath but usually use a 140F water bath followed by a vacuum purge. I think I have been fully decarboxylating it this whole time which may be killing the taste of my dabs… (I thought I was getting ‘all the butane and contaminants’ out)


    • You’re right, I failed to follow through, so am lacking, and you are going to have to guess, because my time is limited and I’m unable to quickly find pictures that old in the archives.

      You might give a try just to see if you can tell the difference, because it is pretty blatant and I’ve yet to find anyone who didn’t quickly see the difference.

      Solvent bubbles are random sized and can be quite large.

      CO2 bubbles from decarboxylation, are fine fizzy bubbles.

      Give a shot?



  40. We performed a few experiments to see what conversion ratios of THC to CBN are possible @122C, exceeding 70% decarboxylation. You may be surprised with the results. Check it out!

    Steve, CAT Scientific


    • Posted by Darby on February 15, 2016 at 3:07 PM

      Very interesting on the lack of cbn production, any thoughts on where over 25% of your cannabinoids went after 6 hours of heating? (Initial total was 23.3 @6hrs total was 17.4)(by the 24 hour mark you have lost over 40%) I think the stronger conclusion is excess time/heat definitely causes a breakdown even if we don’t know into what. Really appreciate both your doing this and your posting it. Would be very curious if you did a similar series for the first 6 hours, to see where total decarboxylation did occur and if there is a sweet spot with regard to total cannabinoid breakdown.


      • The analytical lab that performed the analysis told me the THC mg/ml numbers are somewhat inaccurate because the heat reaction is causing other side reactions and other cannabinoid like molecules are being formed. One of them specifically is overlapping with THC in the HPLC system, which messed up accuracy. In order to zero in, he’d have to do a custom analysis developed specifically for the unusual samples.


  41. Posted by John on January 24, 2016 at 3:15 PM

    is the process of decarbing CO2 extracted crude oil the same as your posted graph?


    • Posted by Al Khemi on February 15, 2016 at 7:53 PM

      I’m really curious why people refer to “CO2-extracted” material as if it were something qualitatively and substantially different from any and all other extracted cannabis.

      I cannot find the sense of it.


      • Because it typically is unique, and different. CO2 requires expensive equipment, longer cycles, and close fraction control to produce a purdy, aromatic and tasty extract. Those products typically don’t have the same appearance as BHO or QWET concentrates, to which they are typically compared.



  42. Well I am speaking about decarboxylation and was not making any direct recommendations about solvents, but I see no problem with using Isopropyl as long as it is pure and oil is purged.
    I understand many people prefer to use Ethanol as it is drinkable, but is not as easy to get in pure form in many places. Isopropyl is not suitable for drinking (so obviously should not be used in tinctures) but is one of the least toxic solvents (outside of Ethanol) that you can use (certainly far safer than Hexane and Naptha). In fact its toxicity is not even double that of Ethanol.
    Properly made oil should not contain detectable residue anyway, but small traces of Isopropyl is not considered harmful so I would certainly rather oil makers used Iso than Naptha or hexane (Isopropyl is a class 3 solvent the same as Ethanol and butane, though not as low in toxicity, and is used to extract food grade products often).
    I take it from your comment that you disapprove of using Isopropyl alcohol for extractions. Do you have a valid reason for such concerns (I am happy to listen if you do) or are you one of those evangelical people who thinks using anything but food grade ethanol is wrong?
    p.s. If you do have an issue with using Isopropyl alcohol you may also want to take it up with the admins on this site as they also include Isopropyl as one of the solvents they recommend and even have a guide here on how to make oil with it. In addition to the people involved with this site (who are clearly very experienced and knowledgeable) many other very experienced oil makers use Isopropyl (precisely because it is relatively low in toxicity, easy to get pure in more places and not prohibitively expensive).
    Like I said, if you have constructive criticism or a valid concern regarding the use of Iso then feel free to share. But I am not aware of any valid reason not to use it, especially as many oil makers have and do use far more toxic solvents. With the exception of Ethanol (and some forms of butane) Isopropyl is probably the safest, lowest toxicity, most efficient, effective and easy to acquire solvent available.

    Estimated lethal dose for Isopropyl is 8 oz (Ethanol is 14 oz, which is less than double)
    Any form of toxicity requires at least 15 grams (which is way above what would be in even the most poorly purged oils). Unlike Ethanol, Isopropyl evaporates more cleanly and metabolises into acetone (which can then metabolise into organic nutrients) and does not cause acidosis.
    Like I said, it is not suitable for drinking. But is, in my opinion (and the opinion of many others) perfectly suitable as a solvent, especially if oil is properly purged (which should be done regardless of solvent used)


  43. Posted by Henrique on January 11, 2016 at 6:19 AM

    I can make butter as follows? Mix the blade with a longer melted butter and bake in a oven at a temperature of 121C / 250F for half an hour? Would not it be more practical than decarboxylate dry first then to make butter? Moreover, not prevent loss by evaporation terpenes?

    (I am Brazilian and I speak English badly.)


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: