Hi ya’ll!  Graywolf here to welcome you to Skunk Pharm Research LLC!

Our new start up company and this site are just starting to come together, so please bear with us and we will do our best to make your time worthwhile, by sharing our research with you for free.

We derive our income from leasing equipment of our design to local OMMP service providers, and spend it researching new equipment, processes, and potions for use by medical marijuana patients.

We started the company because our cannabis research hobby was eating up all of our mad money allowances, and we will be happy to break even after taxes, so that we can again use our mad money for personal fun and games.

As part of our research, we supply pro bono potions to volunteer patient test panels with a variety of different medical complaints and to end of life patients requesting support to attempt a cannabis cure with gram a day doses.

We periodically conduct hands on extraction classes of our own, that thus far have been well received, and have agreed to start teaching show and tell extraction classes at other local groups.

We neither buy or sell cannabis products, and all of our donations come from our own strictly compliant garden, or from material donated for that purpose by other skunk pharmers, who meet our organic growing standards.

In our own garden, we are focusing on developing high CBD strains to make high dosages tolerable to more people, when delivered in a sublingual or oral format.  We currently have Cannatonic and another no name strain that look promising and ES will keep you up to date on that progress.

Skunk Pharm Research LLC was formed by us three equal partners, from the local skunk pharmers group, with no medical credentials beyond Red Cross first aid to any of our names.  We include one each retired electrical and manufacturing engineer, plus a bright young biochemistry student just getting started.

We have no illusions of any of our results ever being accepted by the medical profession, and in point of fact, that is not our goal or intent.

Our intent is to dramatically increase the number of MMJ patients running through the streets waving their arms and shouting out their miracle as they see it, and to send more to the voting place, with their eyes open, so that they can no longer be lied to.

The group made me Technical Director, because being older than dirt, I know enough to be dangerous on a wide range of subjects, though alas, I am the resident expert on absolutely nothing.

I mostly handle equipment and extraction process development.  I will freely share my progress on those projects with ya’ll, both here and on other forums where you see my Graywolf sobriquet.

Joe, is our R&D Director, dragging us old farts (or fartess) kicking and screaming into the 21st century.  He has not only helped us immeasurably with chemistry, but is leading our charge on tissue culture, synthetic seed development, and DNA sequencing.  He will be keeping ya’ll up to speed on his page as he progresses.

Eloquentsolution is our Marketing director in charge of purchasing, and our lease programs. She is also our master dirt pharmer, consistently pumping out our fat bottomed girls like clockwork and will be keeping ya’ll up to date on our master garden.

She also likes to play in the lab and developed both our Holy Anointing Oil oral, and topical medications, as well as other potions she will share with you.

More to come, so hope ya’ll will keep checking back.

Kohst ah Wa ya, aka Graywolf

349 responses to this post.

  1. Posted by Shroom1986 on January 14, 2017 at 5:37 AM

    Hi Guys, great post on the source vacuum. If I ordered one to the UK is it safe to use with a plug adapter?


  2. Posted by redturtle984 on January 13, 2017 at 4:51 AM

    This is my latest greatest and mankinds most significant video ever produced by a marijuanna alchemist, hobby grade, ever made! I have started finding all kinds of uses for the various glassware. I use the glassware to clean up and experiement with extractions of marijuanna but normally I do a whole month supply at a time at the start of each month. It means I get bored as a homebound disabled vet kind of guy so why not brew the very best? Plus I get a lot of email asking what I use and this is part of it.

    My position on posting here is that it always pays to sip great coffee before and after a bodaciously good vape hit. 😉😜😁. Plus it shows a great device that all extraction artists should posess.

    It is a fine frit Buchner funnel from chemglass, part # CG-1406-12 that mates via a 24/40 joint to a Kemtech Erlenmeyer Flask part #F664250. I store the Buchner funnel with a small boiling flask clipped on to avoid breaking the downtube which is vulnerable and fragile. The vacuum pump used is a Robinair part #15500. The Nalgene vacuum tube (the Rolls Royce of vacuum tubing) as well as the oher parts I bought on Amazon. I have misplaced the part number for the vacuum hose but search for nalgene vacuum hose on Amazon and there are many choices – be prepared for sticker shock….

    The vacuum pump is my second and I love this pump! Anyone doing this stuff as a hobby is stuck wondering what kind of pump to buy and websites say little about it.

    My first was a dual stage piston pump (VP4D) that came with the vacuum chamber. This one is a dual vane pump. The difference is remarkable and my new one outperforms the old one in every respect for this hobby. In way I am glad I got my first one because I have a reference to compare and can say without doubt that a dual vane pump is the way to go for only about $210.



  3. Posted by redturtle984 on January 5, 2017 at 10:36 AM

    Here is an idea to help purify extracts of the irritants normally found. Irrititants found are combustable, and THC is not.


  4. Posted by ryan on December 29, 2016 at 9:44 AM

    cool website thanks for your research


  5. Posted by Jeff Morrow on December 24, 2016 at 11:40 AM

    Your wisdom and its sharing are profound. Thank you!
    I am curious about the “plant waxes” found in the plant. (Not “wax” forms of extract.) More specifically, does anyone know what sublimation/vaporization/boiling point temp ranges those waxes have?


    • Posted by redturtle984 on December 24, 2016 at 4:32 PM

      Under high vacuum (needle near 30″ on gauge) the waxes I have dealt with in my short path setup do not seem to boil at temps of 220C on the themometer in the boiling flask. The “waxes” could be almost any combination of things depending on plant. Plus heating the waxes past about 150C or so changes the flavor and color.



      • Posted by Jeff Morrow on December 24, 2016 at 10:19 PM

        Thanks for the quick, helpful response. It seems you are saying these are long chain molecules with fairly high sublimation/vaporization temperatures i.e., above the temperatures of more interesting cannabinoids. Have I got that right?


        • Posted by redturtle984 on December 25, 2016 at 2:16 AM

          The boiling point of “wax” is hard to find. Parafin is listed in the single reference I found as boiling at 370C. Likely parafin is so refined that it is possible to get it to this point before the components of the wax degrade and break down.

          Yes, the wax component of the extracts I have dealt with are much higher than the thc that I am after. THC itself is a VERY high boiling point substance and it takes VERY high vacuum and temperatures in the boiling flask (in my short path rig) approaching 180C before it pulls over in a high vacuum short path distillation.

          My gauge on my vacuum manifold is analog. The pump is a fual stage piston pump. It is (was) a good vacuum for pulling vacuum but it eas not a diaphragm pump. I was able to run half a dozen very small batches at the vacuum that it could pull, but it finally failed. Too much stuff in the oil from doing this. Cold trap will not catch it all.

          The way it needs to be done as far as I can see is by using diaphragm pumps in series. Diaphragm pumps cannot pull hard vacuum like a piston pump but they tolerate the chemicals going through them. The dual stage piston pump I have pulls enough vacuum at the xtreme end but at the extreme end there is no way to stop terpenes and other fume from bypassing the cold trap and entering the pump. I discovered that while it is possible for a hobbyist to engage in a vaccum driven short path distillation, I lack the sophistication and $$$ to make this possible for me.

          I accomplish short path distillation using a cryogenic sublimator in which the vapors only need to travel about ½ inch before it contacts the cold finger. This is only useful for relatively small quantities but does indeed work very well if short path distilled product is wanted. I have used it many times for this to obtain nrarly pure but it is a “lossy” process.

          This is why I ended up breaking some glass lolz and figured out steam co-distillation. The steam is injected under the extract puddle in the boiling flask and the head temp never exceeds 98C until the steam injector is above the extract puddle. When it jumps up to 105C I know the run is over. Co-distillation is easy to do on a hobby scale and works well. It leaves behind the waxes.


  6. Posted by redturtle984 on December 21, 2016 at 8:27 PM

    Steam co-distillation of extract to purify it. The head temp stays below 105 C while the oil is pulled along with the steam. The steam generator is a flask connected to an evacuation tube inserted into the oil through the thermometer well. The light yellow oil is of the highest potency straight out of the receiving flask.


  7. Posted by M h on November 21, 2016 at 9:15 AM

    I have been pursuing your site and came across your article on standardizing a process for producing translucent oil concentrates. I was just curious as to whether the winterization step would be necessary if a thin film evaporator were employed?


    • yes.Lot of fats left. Not winterizing will give you more fats in the final product,leaving it more opaque


    • Thin film evaporation doesn’t require removing the plant waxes first.

      The product will be improved if you extract at low enough temperatures to not extract them in the first place, or remove them afterwards.

      Removing them afterwards also removes some of the monoterpenes, thus produces a less aromatic end product, so I prefer to not extract the waxes in the first place.



  8. Posted by ctssite on November 8, 2016 at 4:22 PM

    Hey guys,
    I’m loving all the knowledge on this site.

    I just recently started with oils and conventrates and since I live in an area where I can’t get most edible / oils, I have to make it myself.

    I got ethanol tincture done with a MB2 ‘schöne and it is super dark green.

    I filtered it and waiting for a other filter 0.2 microns.

    Basically what I wanted to see is if I can mix bentonite clay into the ethanol mixture and filter it out? Will the THC bond to the bentonite?

    I don’t want to mess with hexane and other chemicals and that’s why I’m trying to find a way to filter it.

    Also, reduced the oil smells bad, nothing like cannabis, is that normal?


    • Posted by redturtle984 on November 8, 2016 at 8:52 PM

      THC is sticky at room temperature. THC does not stick to polar things like water. It sticks to everything else.


    • Ethanol and chlorophyll have a love affair, and it is in solution, not suspension, so doesn’t filter out.

      We minimize chlorophyll by extraction at subzero temperatures, so the frozen water soluble chlorophyll binding proteins, block access. https://skunkpharmresearch.com/qwet-extraction/

      Bentonite clays work, and I think THC loss would be minimal, but Pharmer Joe has the most experience with bentonite clay on our team, so will let him answer that question, and draw this to his attention for when he is in town.

      We didn’t discuss your overall process, but the typical cannabis plant smells are from their mono and sesquiterpenes. A well made concentrate smells like the plant it came from.

      If you remove most of the mono and sesquiterpenes, it loses those smells, and the phenolic diterpeninoids have a faint phenolic odor.

      Doing a polar extraction without freezing it first, also extracts the water and water solubles, like the alkaloids, as well as copious chlorophyll, so it is no surprise that the odor might be off putting.



      • Posted by redturtle984 on November 9, 2016 at 6:54 AM

        Here is a video showing what started as amber shatter. I boiled off the first fraction which turns the light amber shatter into a thick deep red oil. I boiled off 10% by volume straight from being extracted. I ceased the boil when the obnoxious odor smelled in the fume ceases. The fume starts to become enriched with thc and the odor drops off to a faint smell. In this step my video seems to confirm GW’s assertion that chlorophyl gets trapped in extractions. I started with lab clean glassware and items and with clear/amber/orange extract color.

        Check out what appears to be chlorophyl that has been teased out in this process. Removing the stuff is highly problematic. My chromotography column latches onto it using hexane as the mobile phase and alumina as the stationary phase, but my column is only big enough for gram size quantities.

        A much larger filter/column made of alumina and pushed run through with hexane would be required than I care to attempt and frankly the green can be cooked out pretty well at 325F or so.

        I have process much extract using isopropyl alcohol/water combo (rubbing alcohol) because the water/iso azeotrope seems to get the polar water component close enough to the partially miscible components to pull them out. I have used a wide variety of available solvents and his is the one that tells the tale as shown in the video.

        Thank you GW for all you do. I hope this helpedd.


        • Posted by redturtle984 on November 9, 2016 at 7:14 AM

          Same beaker later as the rubbing alcohol boils off. As it boils off the green is reduced. I also seem to,have isolated DNA proteins in the extract (a lot) and these go from transparent to brown to black, then shrivel within minutes while boiling. There is a LOT going on during a refinement but really I am just doing what men have done for thousands of years – I cook away what I do not want and keep what helps me. Since I am retired and have no profit motivation the process is greatly simplified. I just like doing it and sharing videos.

          Any fellow “Stoner Corner” friends who find themselves in Eugene, drop me a line. I enjoy sharing as a way to pay forward what was gifted to me when I first sought treatment. If you need to curl up in a blanket in a corner for a while after vaping this stuff, then I understand. 😉


  9. Posted by Charles on October 20, 2016 at 1:11 PM

    Hi my name charles and I’ve be dabbling with extracts for quite sometime now but can honestly say nowhere near your level of expertise. Over the past year or longer I have been making hash oil mixed with terpenes for vape cartridges. I’ve been using the terpene because it seems like a better route for vaping rather than using PG or VG. A lot of information has left me kind of without an exact answer but you guys seem to clarify things on a better level. My questions:
    1. Are terpenes so far proven to be safe for mixing with concentrates for vaping in cartridges?
    2. Is decarbing required to get a better effect for the cartridges?
    3. Is there a way to make a pure concentrate that can go straight into the cartridge for a diy guy such as myself? And the reason I ask this is because there are several companies that state their cartridges are pure, either through co2 extraction or food grade alcohol extraction.
    I greatly appreciate the time you take to answer any of my questions.
    Thank you,
    Charles M.


    • Morning Charles!

      Each terpene (C-10 through about C-30) has is own medicinal properties, along with side effects.

      As with salubrious things like Oxygen, the poison is in the dosage, so it depends heavily on how much of what.

      I highly recommend that you obtain and use, Second Edition Essential Oil Safety, by Tisserand/Young. It outlines both sources and medicinal effects, as well as limit values.

      Decarboxylation isn’t required for medications that are to be vaporized, but decarboxylation does lower the extracts viscosity, improving its flow.

      One way is to use the C-21 fraction from short path distillation, with C-10/15 fractions added back.

      If you’ve been dabbing for awhile, you may find hits from E-Pens unsatisfying by comparison. I’ve had some satisfying E-Pen skillet hits, but they are somewhat messy to maintain.



      • Posted by redturtle984 on November 6, 2016 at 9:29 AM

        I would like to add a video that shows how I purge things quickly. I hope this offers a point of view that helps. The fiberglass mat I use is available on Amazon for hobbies. I cook the mat in my oven prior to use to burn off manufacturing dust. I run a needle through it several times prior to use to allow enough airflow through. The vapor hits last a very long time and I do not believe very much, if any thc is being carried away with the terps in the smoke.

        The puck is being held on top of a borosilicate glass petri dish and the fiberglass acts like a wick in a lanter for the extract. THC does not combust. Terps do.


  10. Posted by redturtle984 on October 14, 2016 at 1:56 PM

    I vote for clear concentrate!


    • I’ve actually never met a well made cannabis concentrate that I didn’t like. Some just better than others.

      I surely do admire Clear for its smoothness and medical effectiveness. I admire Royal Jelly even more!

      At the other end of the scale and at least an order of magnitude less smooth, but more aromatic and flavorful, are the live resin extracts. Ah loves as much of those as ah can stands too, just cough more.

      Since it is of course the monoterpenes that create most of the aroma and taste, all of the extracts that include them, include their entourage effects. Those effects vary considerably, based on the medicinal effects of the mono and sesquiterpenes present in the specific strain involved.

      I liked smoking flowers too, except for the part about what it did to my bronchial tubes. Lot’s of good reasons to sing our “Hail Mary’s.”



      • Carrying the thought a little further, smooth can be relative to the dab size. An Oregon Skunk Pharmer, whom relocated to the land of CA, was visiting and took a large enough dab of Clear, that his eyes crossed and he gasped for breath, unable to talk for long enough for me to notice, but not yet become concerned.

        He finally gasped, “The problem with big dabs of Clear, is that its hard to get under it to cough it out.” I mentioned that I had some Live Resin that would certainly get under it, and he replied, “No, I want more of that, as soon as I’m able.”



      • Posted by redturtle984 on December 3, 2016 at 6:53 AM

        What I miss is old style hashish that came up from Mexico when I was a teeny bopper in Madras Oregon.

        It was very dark green, made half your lung come out coughing, and was the most pleasant high I have had. It had a unique flavor and I hope dispensaries can provide this some day


  11. Posted by redturtle984 on October 13, 2016 at 10:45 PM

    Is it legal to store unlimited quantities of extract in a solution of hexane in Oregon? Hexane would render the product unfit for human consumption, similar to the way that it is legal to posess homemade alcohol if it too is rendered unfit for drinking (denatured).

    Can any legal beagle see if the wording of the law specifies “usable” in a way that means immediately usable? Obviously hexane takes very little effort to purge completely and safely from extract but the same is true for denatured alcohol – the denaturing agent can be removed easily.

    Unfortunately I do not have a problem with too much extract lying around lolz! But as I do my hobby chromatography experiments with hexane as the mobile phase I always of course recover the purified product in a solution of hexane. Just gram quantities, but it got me to wondering if extract in solution of hexane was considered “usable” product under the law?


  12. Posted by Drew on October 13, 2016 at 9:10 AM

    What about lipoprotein cancer?


  13. Posted by Lightning moon on October 12, 2016 at 12:30 PM

    Was wondering if you guys have tried dewaxing when using 600a. I’m talking about single solvent. blasting. Freezing in a cryo. Dewaxing then purging. Is it counterproductive since I will dewax terps. Also what about blasting into 3a sieve. Will that lose terps too. Just curious if you had any info.thanks

    Lightning moon


    • Morning LM! I designed the Mk VIII inline dewaxing system, but have never used it, because what we’ve found is that if you extract at the temperatures that you are using of inline dewaxing, you don’t extract much of the non targeted C-30 elements in the first place.

      That is why the Mk IVC and VC Terpenators come with a counter-flow heat exchanger for pre-chilling the LPG using liquid N2.

      I will post my WolfWurx Mk VIII design, that was shared publicly prior to Pharmgold. Any further refinements are their intellectual property.



    • Posted by redturtle984 on October 13, 2016 at 8:28 AM

      This post deals with dewaxing in general.

      I have been happily consuming much great extract and am going now to blaspheme;

      It simply is not necessary and is wasteful to dewax extract.

      I can prove in video, through logic and recorded data, and with methods easily done that if the proper terps are purged from the extract the vaping experience is as smooth easily as pure thc.

      I can and have refined pure thc from extract. yummmmmmmm,.
      But always with dewaxing there is so much loss until I realized several key findings over the course of at least a pound and a half of extract use.

      I find that it is impossible to remove thc completely from waxes without nearly an equal amount of thc by weight being entrained in the wax that is removed. I have proven it in experiment. So dewaxing is a lossy process, and labor intensive.

      It is not the wax that causes significant respiratory irritation at all. I have repeatedly vaped extracts treated to remove and convert terps but dispense with dewaxing and the vape is pristine smooth and delightful. VERY little loss because it is only very little of the terps that need removed to do this.

      I have vaped, smoked, and infested a lot of extract and have come to believe that dewaxing is actually not a preferred method for me. The was causes no problems and even adds body to the vape. Without the terps in the wax (terps are solvents) it does not burn the lungs.

      Please don’t make me walk the plank now….lolz, but I can produce a vid to show precisely how to do this safely and within the safety guidlines GW has set for this site (no open flame for solvent removal). Flame does indeed put a polish on the oil but is not necessary. I only like to flame off the residual pinene.


  14. Posted by Louie on October 11, 2016 at 9:44 PM

    Hello I am addicted to Percocet. I have had 3 back surgies, esphogus surgery, Nasal surgery, been stabbed and shot. So been on them since 2008 for pain but I really want to stop but there is no way I can buy myself. I’m to the point if I even get frustrated I run for a pill.


    • Posted by redturtle984 on October 13, 2016 at 9:43 AM

      There is much anecdotal evidence that marijuanna can ease the withdrawls symptoms of various drugs.

      However, there is only one way to get off of prescribed pain medications; throw them into your fireplace and go have a good cry. Life hurts the more times I got broken, cut, burned or whatever, but the only way to really live life is just to accept the pain, smoke a doob, and simply take pain pills “off the table” as an option.

      I know what pain is, and I do not say this lightly. Destroy your prescription for them, flush or burn the ones you have, and decide to live instead of just exist. Then grab some great Indica, roll a big fat joint, call a friend, and light up.

      Report back if it works.


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