The Mk IA & automated Mk II Terpenator BHO Extractor

The Terpenator Essential Oil Extractor

Our main project and the one closest to completion is our volatile gas (butane) essential oil extraction apparatus. This project started when we realized how expensive large quantities of butane are and how environmentally damaging it is to volatilize that butane into the atmosphere. We began to think of a passive recovery device that anyone could DIY with a little help from a local machine shop.

While that was in the brainstorming phase we learned of a DIY active recovery unit designed and built by FOAF, that made use of a refrigerant recovery pump.

Alas, our first pump had a misclocked valve operator from the factory, and though oil less, some how butane still got to the bearings and washed out some oil into the extract.

We discovered the oil in the  essential oil extract using a black light, and by the time we figured why the recovery was so ghastly slow, the seals were toast from running dry.

We were back on the hunt for an oil-less refrigerant recovery pump that was suitable for R-600 (Butane). We found a large scale compressor that is used for liquid to liquid extraction of propane from train cars; which would not be suitable for our needs.

From a fellow researcher who had similar problems with pumps, we learned of the Appion unit that ultimately proved successful. He had about 80 hours on his unit at that point without issue.

After choking a few days over the cost, we purchased the same G-5 model Appion, and we have put a several hundred testing hours on it, with one upper end rebuild.  Primarily caused by running the pump under hard vacuum too much of the cycle.

After increasing our systems bottom heat and adding column heat in the final recovery, we have noted little loss of performance on the new rebuild.

We were also able to cut the process time in about half, by having our collection pot sitting in boiling water, while we kept our butane recovery and storage vessel in an ice bath.

Presently the test sled is running  ten flood and soak cycles over a 30 minute period, using about 10 column volumes of butane, with full recovery in about 15 minutes.  The unit has extracted in excess of 25%  essential oil extract Absolute by weight, and averages in excess of 20%.  A full cycle has a sample floor to floor time of 45 minutes.

With the 24″ column in place, it holds about 240 grams of material, which provides an average production rate of about 80 grams per hour plus raw  essential oil extract.

During testing, we noted how boring it was to watch a vacuum gauge and proved that with every new step in a manual process, there is an exponential increase for human error, so our next all stainless steel unit will use explosion proof automatic valves and microprocessor controls. Our new unit will be simple to use even for the most non technical user; load the column, push start and then clean out the collection container and column.

As we have no desire to build more than prototype test sleds ourselves, we sent the conceptual CAD prints out for competitive bid by CNC water jet cutting and machining vendors, as well as an aerospace pressure vessel shop, with ASTME certifications.

Alas, we discovered that with negotiating as an OEM, we can buy the ASTME pressure vessel lower end, cheaper than we can have one made, and even buy columns off the shelf at retail for less than we can have them made using local resources.

As our survival as a company, is more important to us than supporting the local economy in the style to which they have become accustomed, we will modify our designs to reflect that and then start posting the DIY details.

Now that the pressure vessel is a buy out, there is nothing else that isn’t buildable in a garage workshop, equipped with a drill press and TIG welder.

We have taken a deposit from the vender whom has our original test sled leased out, for a fully automated unit, and have ordered the pressure vessel and identified explosion proof automatic Asco valves that will work, but are still reviewing alternatives before placing that order.

The controls is the open question at this point.  Our original plan was a PLC micro processor, but after looking at the price for an industrial unit, we are  reviewing using simple timers and pressure switches with solid state relays to accomplish the same thing, using a hobbyist microprocessor, or building our own dedicated solid state electronics at about 25% the cost of a PLC with software.

Our mostly retired electronics genius, is pondering the issue on his current vacation in warmer climes, and will begin looking at it seriously on his return.  If we end up building our own, we will post an electronics design as well.

We are building this first G-2 prototype ourselves, and I will take pictures as we progress, starting with the modifications of the pressure pot when it arrives.

The unit is designed, so that it can also be fitted with manual valves, and forgo the automation.  The current manual test sled works extremely well, so the only advantage to automation, is less stand by labor, and more precise timing of process steps.

We will of course also be trying to beat old process records, whose records continue to improve, and to make loading easier and faster.

Here is a schematic of how the system operates, as well as a picture of the test sled after shakedown.

Follow us to stay up on our latest development’s.

collection vessel

The Terpenator Essential Oil Extractor

 Hi ya’ll!

I picked up a 2.8 gallon Bink’s Model 183S stainless steel ASTME paint pot, rated at 110 psi and am excited to try out some 1 1/2″ X 24″ stainless tri-clamp columns that I discovered at www.glaciertank.com.

Our target operating pressure is -29.9″ Hg vacuum, to +60 psi and according to Glacier, the sanitary pipe spools are capable of several times that pressure.  If it works out in field beta testing, I will adapt the Mk I test sled, to the new column, so the lessee has a common column.

The paint pot has a central opening for an agitator, which had a plug with an o-ring seal filling the hole, on my cheaper non agitated model.  I dropped that plug off at a machine shop yesterday, along with the loading port lid, for modifications, which will allow me to more or less just screw the whole thing together out of available parts from this point on.

I’ll share pictures of those, after I pick them up, but here are some pictures of  what we have so far:

3-3-12

Progress is being made. I developed the process logic and then met with Bob, to discuss controls.  My logic assumes three pressure switches and three timers, but we looked at using a single pressure transducer, with a 4 to 20 miliamp output, in concert with three voltage comparitors, but just the transducer was $540, as opposed to $38 each for the double pole adjustable pressure switches.

For timers, we found some premade count down timers which we will modify, and we will have two LCD timer readouts.  One adjustable total process timer, 5 minute hard vacuum purge soak time, and one 20 second flood timer.

I also dropped by Paramount Plumbing Supply and looked at the ball valves with operators, which I will need to automate this unit.  For both size, cost, and explosion proof qualities, I have elected to go with pneumatics, and the operators are still so big and heavy that I will have to build a metal frame to support them.  Hopefully I have enough structural aluminum in my haunted garage to do so without adding much weight.

Here is the logic sheet.

Butane Recycle System Logic

NO

DEVICES

CYCLES

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Event driver

1.0

1.1

1.11

1.15

*2/3LOOP

1.14

1.12

1.11

1.16

1.0

Turn on power

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

1.1 Momentary start button O X X X

X

X X X O
1.2 Vacuum pump valve NC O X O O O X O O
1.3 Ref. recovery valve NC O X X X X O O O
1.4 Lower isolation valve NC O X O O X X X O
1.5 Upper vent valve NC O X X O X X X O
1.6 Butane control valve NC O O X O O O O O
1.7 Vacuum pump on/off O X O O O X O O
1.8 Ref pump on/off O O X X X O O O
1.9 Hot water pot on/off X X X X X X X X
1.10 Column heat on/off O O O O X X X O
1.11 Vacuum switch -29.2Hg O X O O O X O O
1.12 Vacuum switch -22″ Hg O O O O X O O O
1.13 Vacuum switch -10″ Hg O O X X O O O O
1.14 15 minute timer O X X X X O O O O
1.15 20 second flood timer O O X O O O O O
1.16 5 minute timer O O O O O O O X O

 *Once in the 2/3 loop, 1.13 becomes the driver, instead of 1.11, as on the first cycle. 

To initiate, turn on power and push momentary start button.

X in a column is ON

O in a column is Off

X in a column is the event that ends the cycle and initiates the next.

3-11-2012

More progress!  The lessee who is operating my pumped test sled, and who ordered a full blown automated system, has continued to refine the process and has not only bumped the record yield to over 25% Absolute, but has determined that four flood cycles are all that is required.

She now has the total floor to floor cycle time down to about 28 minutes.  That processes about 480 grams of material an hour, for a yield of around 120 grams of BHO Absolute.  That would compare to around 130 grams of raw BHO oleoresin, before winterization.

She also no longer tries to recover 100% of the butane, but instead stops the recovery when the recovery vessel reaches -22 mm/hg, and turns on the hard vacuum pump to pump 29.9 mm/hg, which pumps off about 57 cu/in/.00095m3 of gaseous butane to atmosphere per cycle, or about $0.076 worth.

Electrical costs are about 3.3 KW per hour, at $0.09, or $0.045 per cycle.

Total operating cost, less labor and periodic pump maintenance, is $0.18/hr, or about $0.0015 gram.

We have noticed that our recycled butane is starting to pick up water, so I will add a dryer.  Fortuitously, I was able to pick up a R-12 Robaire refrigerant recovery and recycle system off E-Bay cheeep, and will rob the filtration and dryer system off of it.

That includes a circulation pump, a dryer, and a water detector, which can be circulating the butane in the recovery tank through the dryer and returning it, while we are doing other things.  It has been used to recover automotive refrigerant, so I will completely rebuild it and replace the hoses and dryer element to avoid cross contamination.

UPDATES ON PROGRESS

Well, progress is going slower than planned, with illness rearing its ugly head amongst usn’s cadre of graying, hoary moss covered retired machinists.

Here is the only two pieces in the basic system, that require machining or welding, and you can see how easy they are to make.  They still need to be cleaned and polished, but the attached pictures show what they look like immediately after fabrication.

The center plug in the pressure pot lid was bored for an easy slip fit on a 3/4″ 1.050″ OD  Schedule 40 316SS pipe, with 10.5″ sticking out the bottom of the plug and 3.5″ sticking out the top.  This is where the valves and column attach.

The paint port lid was also modified by cutting off the wrench boss and boring for the same 3/4″ pipe.  This will be for the control valves and pressure switches.

We decided on pneumatic operators on full port stainless ball valves.  All are air to open or close, except the butane supply valve, which is a normally closed, spring return valve for safety.

The three and four way Asco solenoid valves for the air, will allow us to separate the electrical functions from the extraction area, for explosion proof protection.

Here is a picture of the valves that I’ve ordered and the prices.  Keep in mind that manual valves can be used at significantly less cost.

4-11-12

Lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!  The pneumatic operated valves valves arrived and I installed them.  Here is the Mk II assembled and ready to roll.

The electronics are scheduled for smoke test this week end, so we are close to beta testing.

 Here is a list of additional parts:

Progress on controls! 

For ya’ll that have been waiting with baity breath for what our resident electronics genius came up with, Bob picked a Panasonic FP -X C30-TD PLC (~$300) for the task.

Because of some of the loads involved, Bob also built a relay panel, using an existing standard PSI elevator PC board, and a cycle timer display built from a count down timer kit.  The heavier 2 hp and 1/2 hp motor loads, as well as the 1200 watt soup pot loads will be controlled using Crydom solid state relays.

Here are some pictures of it being smoke tested before installing it in the 12″ X 12″ Hoffman enclosure.

Starting to get some good input from other forums as well.  Here is one that brother Luc posed, followed by Banana buds:

Originally Posted by banana buds                                                                       hey gray, noticed y’alls picked up a PLC. some fine machines,   but you might want to consider looking into something even easier and cleaner   to build with – arduino boards. they are extremely easy to deal with, and   should be plenty of muscle for your application.that would definitely help cut costs, as the boards themselves are around   $30, and there is a ton of auxiliary hardware available to mate directly up   to them for various functions. i would imagine that for what you would spend   on all the control hardware using an arduino as the heart, you’d probably   spend less than what just the PLC costs. and out of curiosity, why solid   state relays? nothing like the satisfying clack of a 40 amp contactorif you want more information i’d be happy to help, although i don’t have PM   abilities yet so it will have to just be in here on your thread i suppose.

We always appreciate input and in response, our ancient (older than me) resident electronics genius is more familiar with industrial PLC’s and picked one that he previously used to control elevators and has confidence in.

Before retirement, my resident EEPE automation genius preferred Fanuc and Modicon, but if I was starting from scratch building a home unit, I would look long and hard at the Arduino, because of cost and recommend that others do so as well.

I picked Crydom solid state relays because of their low latching current, high inrush tolerance, and because they are robust and reliable enough that the elevator industry replaced their higher maintenance mechanical contactors with them.

I am also over designed, by using 25 amp relays for no more than a 10 amp motor circuit. I have fallen in love with them over the years. I usually grab them, when I see them surplus, and note that Wacky Willies military surplus is a good source.

They are available at least to 125 amps, but they may make them larger.  The largest I have in my electrical treasure (valuable junk) drawer is 40 amp.

Both issues good inputs! I appreciate all interest and input both here and on the forums that I post on.  I am also available via my private Graywolfslair1@gmail.com  e-mail address.

Progress!

 Bob finished mounting and smoke testing the controls!  Aren’t they purdy!

Alas, they most certainly are not going to fit into the 12″ X 12″ Hoffman enclosure that I provided him, so Moan day I will be out shopping for a kit enclosure.  Total cost for control parts to this point is about $600.

The long pole in the tent is the pressure switches, which were made to order by Wasco, and are due in a couple weeks, and add another $153.

Here are the part numbers.  One was ordered preset at -19hg, one at -22hg, and the third at -29.5hg.

8-20=12

Hee, hee, hee, Mark IA versions are popping up all over and at least one other automated Mk II is almost complete!  I have helped shake out over a half dozen Mk IA’s so far, and more underway.

We converted our Mk I test sled to Mk IA configuration, so that it uses the same sanitary spool columns as the Mk II.  Column length went from 24″, to 36″, and the volume fell from about 240 grams, to about 225 grams.  It sure works slick and makes changing columns easy.

Our Mk II is back on the front burner, now that the skunk shack is complete enough to install it.  I am currently working on finishing up the control panel.  Here it is after layout, and before taking the controls out of the panel again, to drill, saw, and punch all the holes and windows.

Slightly to the right, you can see the christmas tree with the three pressure switches, which will mount through one of the holes in the panel, yet to be drilled.

Hee, hee, hee, progress is being made:

9-24-12

Progress!  Pneumatic plumbing complete.  Only the pump and butane pass throughs remaining:

Lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1  Sean beat us to the shakedown punch!  He brought his completed Mk II Terpenator unit by for shake down, and we spent two days having our way with it.  Hee, hee, hee, snicker, snark, snort!

Here are some pictures of Sean’s new Mk II Terpenator, based on the original design, but taking poetic license with the details.  Hee, hee, hee, just the way we likes them, because we learn new tricks!

We appear to have everything working slick, except for the program, which doesn’t take into consideration that the -10″ Hg, and the -22″ Hg vacuum switches will be closed before reaching the set point on the 29.5″ Hg switch, during the first cycle.

Sean had his controls built by the same source as I had make mine and fortunately, we were able to include Bob, our programer, in the shakedown.  As soon as I re-write the logic, he will rewrite the program to ignore the first two inputs.

Picked up the pass throughs to complete our own Mk II installation in the Skunk Shack extraction cabinet, and will be shaking our own unit out shortly.

10-2-12

Here is the revised control logic:

10-9-12

Lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu!!!!!!!!!!!1  Mk II fully installed and ready for shakedown.  Initial shakedown revealed program flaws, which is being rewritten as we speak.

Lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu lu, ahwoooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1  The new program works and thanks to Sean for running his beta test shakedown before us and saving us time finding the glitches!

Notable, is that the 3/8″ recovery hoses specified on my material list don’t work well, as the orifice is undersize.   Both Sean and I had to replace those hoses to get any sort of reasonable speed.  I purchased my replacements from RSD for $39.55 each and there was no part number called out on the invoice, just a 3/8″ X 5′ heavy duty charging hose.  They have the required full size orifice.

For those of ya’ll who would rather build the manual Mk IA Terpenator, here is a parts list for that, which also reflects the change in hose source.

Mk IA parts list-2-1

Please also check out the Mk IIIA at http://skunkpharmresearch.com/mk-iii-terpenator/

GW

7-26-13

An option to the Appion G-5 or the CPS-T-21, is the Caresaver Universal refrigerant recovery machine, which can be viewed at http://www.rda-eng.com/caresaver.html

They are designed to pump R-600 and R-600A refrigerants, which should gladden the hearts of the fire marshalls.

More information can be had from Mathew Ellis at info@caresaverusa.com, or at  720.412.5194, and they sell for $2380 ea, plus applicable taxes and shipping, in units of one and $2240 for five or more

83 responses to this post.

  1. Hello friends, good article and nice arguments commented at this place, I am
    actually enjoying by these.

    Reply

  2. Posted by John LYF on October 15, 2013 at 10:44 PM

    The Bink’s paint pot, what model goes to 120/psi in the 2 gallon stainless range? Is the Bink’s 183S-200 right? The manual says its rated at 110/psi max. Thanks!

    Reply

    • We used the 2.8 gallon 183S stainless pot, which is rated at 110psi and I corrected the incorrect blog number.

      Normal operating pressure is under 50 psi, so it is within its certified range.

      EDITED:

      Reply

      • Posted by John LYF on October 16, 2013 at 10:19 AM

        Is that just the latest and greatest upgrade? In your blog you mentioned this comment:
        “I picked up a 2 1/2 gallon Bink’s stainless ASTME paint pot, rated at 120 psi”
        Was that an older prototype that had issues and needed to be doubled or something?

        Thanks!

        Reply

        • Sorry, my error. Old age and too many things and too much time. I had to go dig out the records to see what the correct numbers are.

          We used the 2.8 gallon 183S stainless pot, which is rated at 110psi and I corrected the incorrect blog number.

          Normal operating pressure is under 50 psi, and I’ve never seen one over 80 psi in extreme conditions, so it is well within its certified range.

          We did have a problem with the bottom drain leaking on the first one that we bought, and the plug was galled in place, so we couldn’t tighten it or remove it. Binks immediately replaced the tank, but you might make sure that you can remove that plug before you leave the store, so that you can tighten it as necessary using Neverseize to prevent galling.

          Reply

  3. Posted by Chiggler on September 18, 2013 at 5:17 PM

    I have a bhogart 2.5 system which appears to be the exact same as the terpenator. I am having issues understanding this thing. I cant even seem to get the vac pump going right to get the air out and load butane. Frustrated and willing to pay $100 for someone local in Portland to come over for a couple hours and show me from start to finish how to use this thing so I can stop starring at it and actually use it.

    Reply

  4. Posted by Jay on August 18, 2013 at 4:48 PM

    What if you want to make your own BHO and reclaim your butane, but don’t have the money to assemble a Terpenator? See: http://skunkpharmresearch.com/projects/

    That’s how I came to this page. So am I understanding this correct? I need to purchase a paint pot, fit it with hand operated valves,a recovery tank, and order the parts for a column. Then I will have a cheaper version of the lil terp?

    BTW…Thank You! I have successfully been pulling bho extractions and winterizing with all your helpfull info.

    Reply

  5. I do not know if it’s just me or if perhaps everyone else experiencing problems with your blog. It seems like some of the text in your content are running off the screen. Can someone else please provide feedback and let me know if this is happening to them as well? This may be a issue with my web browser because I’ve had this happen before.
    Cheers

    Reply

  6. Posted by ryan-i on June 21, 2013 at 10:09 PM

    hey gw – so i’ve been suspecting my system is losing butane from somewhere, as for the past few weeks i seem to have to add a can of butane for every column i run, i.e. i added 3 cases of lucienne to a fresh recovery tank and ran about 30 columns before needing to add more. added 2more cases, ran about 20-25 columns and ran out, then added 1 case and got about 10 columns before running out again. my actual terpenator has a very small leak at the top compression fitting, but not enough to lose that much butane. i never smelled butane leaking from anywhere until today when i was adding more butane to the system, i could smell some coming off of the front of the appion; also, the air that was blowing from there was hot, which it usually is not. does this sound like it needs the rebuild kit, or a different issue? the appion has also seemed to run a little louder/more rough in thes past few weeks as well. thanks!

    Reply

  7. When some one searches for his required thing, therefore
    he/she wants to be available that in detail, thus that thing is maintained over here.

    Reply

  8. hey grey wolf hope all is well. So i have 4 extractors going like double kindness and they are ripping it up. had some problems with sappy extracts but that issue has resolved itself. today the appion g5 five started knocking a little and then started making all kinds of crazy noise so i shut it off. i saw the rebuild kit at century tools for $230 . i guess i should disassemble and see what needs to be replaced. i presume these motors are like a four stroke dirtbike motor. Valves, piston, cylinder etc

    Reply

    • Knocking may be a different issue. The $230 rebuild kit is just valves and seals for the upper end.

      It is a dirt simple system, with the two piston rods moving back and forth and poppet valves maintaining the vacuum.

      Reply

      • after some investigation it was discovered the gearbox crapped out . $105 from century tool. yeah the pump rips. where can i get some safety head/ruptures discs for this system. it seems like a good safety feature thanks for the help

        Reply

          • What is a rupture disc and how would it be used with this system?

          • A rupture disc is a metal disc that bursts at a given pressure, used in lieu of a pressure relief valve, because the system sees both pressure and vacuum.

            It is a safety device to guard against over pressurization to the point of something breaking.

            The weakest point on the Terpenators is the lid, which is rated at 120 PSI on the Mk IA &Mk II’s, and 150 psi on the Mk IIIA. To be rated at 150 PSI means that the failure is somewhere three X of that pressure.

            The valves are rated at 1000 psi and the hoses at 800 psi, with a 3000 psi burst.

            They typically operate under 50 psi. I only added the rupture disc to the Mk II, because it is automated and has no one there to monitor the pressure gauge. If it ruptures, it vents the butane outside of the building that houses the exhaust cabinet that the system runs in, so that there is never a combustible level of butane in the cabinet or building.

            They can also be a bad thing, in that you have to change them regularly, or the constant oil canning from both vacuum and pressure, results in high cyclic fatigue.

  9. Posted by b man on February 13, 2013 at 5:26 PM

    any way we could see some more pics of the product it makes?can you make shadder?

    Reply

    • It will make anything from carboxylic acid shatter, to partially decarboxylated oil, depending on how hot you run the hot water bath. It takes about 75F to just keep up with the refrigeration of boiling butane under vacuum, but you can cut the time in at least half, by running the pot up to 212F.

      I sent you two pictures to your address, one showing raw oleoresin shatter and one thin film AA shatter. Both extracted using a Terpenator.

      GW

      Reply

  10. You need to use a desiccant filter dryer when reclaiming vapor, you want to get one of the larger sized ones with a sight glass after it that indicates moisture content so you know when to swap it out, you can build a refillable one with a 12″ tri clamp spool with appropriately sized npt adapter ends and npt to flare fittings. If you elect to build your own refillable / reusable filter fill it with combination of watcom filters at the ends and activated alumina beads followed by activated charcoal and zeolite, just make sure to have at least a few layers of 5 micron filter paper packing between layers and before inlets and outlets ifyou build your own filter, this will prevent water pickup from the material your processing, it also is beneficial to use a hygrometer to insure your material is as dry as possible before processing if you want shatter / thick sap consistency,.. Honey comb is what happens if you don’t get all the butane out, you need to thin film purge it between 115 and 145f and preferably have a sight glass on your evap / vacuum back off chamber .

    Reply

  11. Posted by Holistic Organics on February 8, 2013 at 2:51 AM

    r600 oil-less recovery pump
    scroll to bottom of page just before the last pump the
    PUROZONE ADF-500

    http://www.galaxair.com/recuperationen.php

    here is the specs sheet on it

    http://www.galaxair.com/pdf/adf500en.pdf

    I cannot find a price on it which indicates to me its probably pretty pricey, just thought Id share…

    Reply

  12. Posted by shane on January 17, 2013 at 3:35 PM

    you guys should look into using a program called labview and a DAQ box instead of the micro-controller. its a little more expensive but u can do all the programming in like block diagram format and view pressure readings and such on the computer. You can basically create an interface on the computer to control and monitor te system. Once I have one built I am going to try it.

    Reply

  13. [...] of a better solvent for making honeycomb/waxand one way to spend less is to recycle it. Consider: http://skunkpharmresearch.com/projects/ or http://skunkpharmresearch.com/mk-iii-terpenator/ or [...]

    Reply

  14. Posted by Docoptic on November 19, 2012 at 9:40 AM

    Hi!

    We are using a small amount of 99.8% Isopropyl in the product tank to facilitate removal of the resin after recovery, but we now suspect when the recovery is nearly complete we are distilling some of the alcohol back into the supply tank. We think this because the extract is gradually becoming very green. We are using a Apion G5 to speed the recovery. Do you have any thoughts on using the alcohol in the product tank and how we might prevent this?

    Reply

    • We use ethanol to wash oil out of our pot, and pour it in boiling hot, after the butane has been visually purged. We then pour off and process that alcohol mix elsewhere, so that the butane and alcohol are never mixed while it is under vacuum.

      You should be able to dry out the butane again, by installing a filter/dryer cartridge in line. n-Butane is capable of holding about 32 ml/liter water, which will give it a light electric green hue.

      Reply

      • Posted by Docoptic on November 20, 2012 at 8:08 AM

        Yes we talked about doing it that way. Putting the alcohol in before the extraction makes the removal easy since there is not a film of resin in the tank at the end. We will try putting the alcohol in after the extraction. You say you put it in boiling hot? Is that necessary since we are trying to keep our process cold.

        Reply

        • It needs to be hot enough to dissolve the essential oils. You can warm it only as much as necessary, but it chills rapidly when you pour it in the added heat sink of the pot.

          Reply

          • Posted by Docoptic on November 22, 2012 at 12:24 PM

            Well that worked! We ran the butane back and forth 3 or 4 times until there was nothing left in the extraction pot. The first extraction after that was a very nice amber/brown. We scraped as much out of the pot manually as possible and then used warm ethanol to get the rest. Not quite as fast as having the alcohol in there from the beginning but it will do. ) Thanks very much for your website! So much great info, and thanks for the help.

          • Good job! Bon appetite!

  15. Posted by Ron Kingroll on October 3, 2012 at 5:22 AM

    You mentioned your butane was picking up water and you were adding a dryer but I don’t see anymore mention of it. Is it just a simple filter on the return line of the recovery unit….or does the Robair vacuum unit somehow take care of the problem? How exactly does it work and what it needed? Thanks

    Reply

    • The small canister on the Appion intake is a filter dryer, and you can add one on the discharge side as well.

      To minimize back pressure on the Appion, I picked up a used refrigerant reclaim system made by Robinair for Chrysler Corp, which pumps butane out of the storage tank dip tube, through a filter dryer, and back into the tank through the gas port. I plan to rebuild the pump, clean the system, and replace the element before switching it to butane service.

      You can do the same thing by packing your column with Dryrite and circulating the butane through it, using the Appion in push pull mode.

      Reply

      • Posted by ronkingroll on October 3, 2012 at 11:41 AM

        will a Robinair 15115 work? I can get one locally that is new and unused for practically nothing in a trade for computer work. Thanks again.

        Reply

        • Practically nothing is a very good price and I would go for it, even though it is a small 1.5 CFM single stage vane pump capable of about 115 microns vacuum. 115 microns is lower than you will need to go, but the small pump may take a while to get there, depending on what you are pumping down.

          We use one two stage 6.2 cfm, and a 5 cfm pump.

          Reply

    • hey wolf man how you doing? i have a unit like dk duckmangs and used to be able to take the oil from the machine at about -25 hg and put it in a vacuum chamber and turn it into honeycomb wax. After lots of runs i can no longer turn the extract into a wax and i am wondering if moisture is extracting chlorophyll and somehow screwing up the ability of the oil to turn into a wax? Next run i am going to start with fresh tane to see if my hypothesis is correct.

      Reply

  16. random just wondering if this could be used some where… dont think so if your recovery is in a freezer and your chamber is on a hot plate at 80-110
    where would you put if you were too http://www.cpsproducts.com/#/w-Recovery-Transformator.swf/

    thanks

    Reply

    • I haven’t tried an aftercooler, but I predict that it will work well to reduce recovery time. If I were building a larger unit, I most definitely would be adding one on.

      Appion also makes one, and there are no doubt others, that you might also check out.

      I would put it between the recovery pump and the storage tank, on the pump discharge line.

      Reply

  17. GW,

    Is there any reason I should not use the 6″ x 6″ sanitary spools with end caps instead of the paint pot? Building a smaller terpenator I suppose? I like the idea of being able to remove the tri clamp bottom plate to remove the oil instead of having to wash it out with ethanol.

    Regards,

    BT

    Reply

    • It just builds a cheaper, smaller unit. It just depends on how much you want to run at a time and spend to build a unit.

      Reply

      • Posted by ronkingroll on September 21, 2012 at 11:19 AM

        I’m thinking of using a 12″ and 6″ sanitary spool held together with a tri clamp instead of the paint pot. Seems like it would have about the same area as the paint pot. Should the SS pipe stick down a little further than the 10 1/2″ or doesnt it matter? Thanks again

        Reply

        • If I understand your question, both the downpipe from the vent tube and the column tube itself, extend down into the tank and reach to about an inch off the bottom of the tank. That helps keep oil ladden butane from being sucked into the recovery intake in the lid, as a liquid.

          Reply

  18. Posted by Ron Kingroll on September 8, 2012 at 12:24 AM

    Just found your site and love it! I’d like to build a Terpenator with out the electronics automation. I believe you refer to it as MK 1A. Is the any info exclusively on doing that?

    Reply

  19. Posted by ken on August 14, 2012 at 8:55 PM

    have you looked at udor kappa 15 pumps they use them to pump refrigerant as well
    as horticulture sprays…

    http://www.climalife.dehon.com/kappa-15-diaphragm-pump/product/show/id/528

    http://udorusa.com/diaphragm_kappa.php

    might be cheaper than than recovery pump need to check seals etc ..

    Reply

  20. Posted by $ean on July 23, 2012 at 12:15 PM

    Thanks for the quick reply, JD. I was able to square my order up with Howard at Wasco last Thursday after you provided clarification for the correct preset pressure switch values. I did ask Howard about the other two sets of pressure switches you had ordered from him back in April. I don’t think that wound has healed yet for Howard, as he didn’t seem too happy about having to eat that order. Anyways, he said that they didn’t have those switches anymore and they’d have to make new ones for me. I still think it was at least worth asking about though so thanks for mentioning it.

    I’m glad that you put me in contact with Bob at Paramount Supply. I was also able to speak with him on the phone last Thursday. He was very helpful when I mentioned that you were the one that referred me to him. He gave me his email address and I sent him a copy of your invoice with all of the part numbers from your initial order. He was able to duplicate your order for me, so now I’m just waiting for the valves to be shipped once Bob gets them all in.

    I was also able to make contact with the other Bob from PSI. The good news is that he does sound willing to build a controller for me, although he did not provide me with a price or timetable yet for delivery. He expressed concern as to whether the controller actually worked as it was intended to. Bob said that he was waiting to hear back from you with your testing results. As such, he is reluctant to build and program the logic for any new controllers until he received confirmation from you that everything worked as it was intended to. Based on your blog, I told him that I was under the impression that the automated MK2 was being leased out, which to me sounds as though it IS working properly. Can you confirm the the controller’s current status and if it is or isn’t functioning properly? If it isn’t ready for prime-time yet, what tweaks need to be done to it to make it right?

    Lastly, do you remember who you purchased your stainless steel fittings and tubing from? Was it from an online vendor or was it a local Portland business? I was able to source everything on your “pipe fittings” list from Grainger, except for the Swageloc fittings. The flare fittings are a bit tricky though because not everyone refers to them as “flare” fittings. For example, I think Grainger refers to them as “tube” fittings, but they appear to be flared. Hopefully they’re the same parts. I know there are different flare angles so that adds an additional level of complexity when ordering fittings.

    For the Swageloc fittings, did you have the tubing custom fitted to the fittings by someone or did you do it yourself? How long is the tubing and is it standard 304 stainless tubing or is it something else?

    Thanks again for your continued assistance with this project. Hopefully, other folks out there who are building Terpenator’s will find some value in the questions I’m asking.

    –SM

    Reply

    • The Mk I is leased out and operating, and the Mk II is leased out but not on line yet. It is pending completion of the building that it will be installed in.

      There is nothing in the control system that could go too wrong. If the program isn’t right, it can be easily rewritten and the rest is simple components that either work, or don’t. I had dinner with Bob and his wife, and he mentioned your contact. I think I have allayed any concerns he may have, and we will be on line shortly anyway.

      The stainless tubing and Swagelok fittings came from Portland Valve & Fitting Co.
      815 Southeast Sherman, Portland, OR 97214
      (503) 288-6901

      Swagelok has other facilities that may be closer. I cut and assembled the 304SS tubing myself and it comes in 10′ sticks.

      Reply

  21. Posted by boxloco on April 19, 2012 at 10:23 AM

    Hey Greywolf
    I need to transfer butane from rented tank to my tank can you tell me what I need to do Or buy to complete this thank you

    Reply

    • Not sure how your system works, but in general:

      If your tank has a liquid dip tube, you can just pull a vacuum on your empty tank and connect the dip tube valve on your bulk tank to the valve on your process tank and let the pressure head in the bulk tank transfer the liquid. You can get a hose with the correct flare fittings to do that at your local refrigeration supply store.

      If you don’t have a dip tube, you can connect the gas port of the bulk tank to your process tank, and hang the bulk tank upside down.

      If you chill the process tank first, it will transfer faster.

      If you heat the bulk tank, it will transfer faster, but keep the temperatures under 100F.

      Reply

  22. Posted by boxloco on March 30, 2012 at 3:15 PM

    hi greywolf,

    can you tell me what the thing is connected to the black hose and the yellow pump

    Reply

    • On one of the black hose is an Appion G-5 refrigeration recovery pump and the other is the prototype test sled Terpenator.

      Reply

      • Posted by boxloco on April 4, 2012 at 9:28 AM

        Hello greywolf,
        At the end of the black hose comected to the appion G-5 it looks like a filter what is that piece called? I am having a hard time finding the adapter to connect my hose to the appion

        Reply

  23. Posted by jameejeffery on March 22, 2012 at 7:29 PM

    Do you have any plans for a small passive recovery device?

    Reply

  24. Sorry to take so long to get back to you bro, but we had to take the extra step of discussing it with our business attorney.

    Yes, we will take care of all of you. For the mechanically handy, I will publish the complete details of the current Mk II as I put it together, and am available to hold your hand and field any questions you might have as you build and learn to use your own DIY unit.

    For those who want to purchase a unit or critical component kits for a unit,Skunk PharmResearch, LLC’s bylaws proscribe doing retail sales, or business outside the state ofOregon.

    However, due to the number of inquiries, after discussing it with our attorney and a couple of the businesses that we lease equipment to, we are going to license our technology to a company who does do retail sales nationally and internationally.

    More on that, after they have had an opportunity to get set up. In the interim, please enjoy this resource site, which will remain free to all and uncluttered with advertisements, because retail sales are outside our core purpose.

    Reply

  25. Hi Graywolf,

    I am a medical user and caregiver.

    Its taken a while but I finally found the thread I was looking for. I am very interested in extraction recovery unit. I have been looking at the tamisium, and just felt it lacked a few things for the money. The complete waste and environmental impact of disposable butane cans has stopped me from making to much and focused me on this search.

    I am also an avid DIYer, a welder by trade, and jack ass at many others.

    I have next to NO understanding of how gas’s perform under pressure, except the obvious side effect of explosions. Thats why i am so drawn to your seemingly over built unit. The safety features you have considered are fantastic!

    Just finished reading your threads and blog, I have to say you guys are a true artists.

    It is mentioned that you will be making a form of CAD drawing or schematic of this unit when it is complete. I would love to be added to your list of more then great full recipients of those prints. I would be more then happy to make a donation to your NFP to help you continue your invaluable research. Or if you are interested in building one out for me that would be amazing as well.

    Thank you for your time in reading this,

    Would be very grateful to hear from you soon.

    I can be reached @ the following email.

    xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    Edited for privacy

    Reply

  26. [...] More after those bids come in. More progress on The Terpenator pumped system here: http://skunkpharmresearch.com/projects/ __________________ Posse ad Esse. From Possibility to [...]

    Reply

    • Hello, looooong time lurker here, We have been following both FOAF’s and your work for awhile now in regards to closed loop essential oil extraction – solvent recovery systems.

      Over the last 5 years we have been building, upgrading and modifying our system.

      We started out with 4″ autolok camlok fittings for our vessel openings and between 1/8″ npt to 4″ npt pipe fittings, high end teflon gasketed 1500 psig dual dry break quick disconnect fittings for all head manifold ports on vessels as well, as for our liquid and vapor transfer hoses, ( we have gone through quite a few 1000psi teflon seated ball valves that would end up leaking after many uses) additionally our transfer hoses are high pressure double walled PFA tubing, they nicely double as sight glasses and allow us to see the coloration of the extracted solution during transfer from steep column and evaporation / bake off chamber.

      Currently we are using ASME alloy productions pressure vessels for evaporation chambers and tri clamp spools for columns. but we may have found a much cheaper alternative to the pressure / vacuum vessel that we plan to investigate very soon. perhaps we could share notes with you on this as development continues.

      In our experimenting we have found that 2″ ID tri clamp spools @ 48″ length require at least 2 rather long soaks and flushes (about 45 minutes per soak) to get most of the oils out, I believe that if we adapted our system like you have yours to use 1.5″ tri clamp spools instead and do a 4x volume pass through like you are doing we could be saving a whole allot of time each run, we would have more runs to do that is for sure but currently a run of our 4ft column is taking us around 3 hours from start to finish to reclaim the full 5 liters of butane we currently have in our system, Also we are not consistently seeing yields in the 25% range, we are closer to 12 – 18% on average, although this may depend on the quality of starting material and how tightly we are packing the column.

      *Maybe the problem really is that we just don’t have enough volume of butane in our recovery tank to do a 4x pass through of our 2″ x 4ft column? It takes around 2.5 liters to fill the column so we would need 12 liters minimally in our recovery tank to accomplish this, we do fill our column from bottom up like you have, we found this was a big improvement over our previous design and would like to thank you for sharing your information regarding your design, it has been very helpful to us.

      We have a few questions if you don’t mind and have the time,
      How many gallons of butane have you or can you safely put into a 50lb refrigerant recovery tank?

      Our guess is around 3.5 gallons or 13.25 liters to be safe and leave enough room for gas expansion with temperature increase, We are hoping you might have the definitive answer here on this, you seem to be very well versed in this field of work ;) We really don’t want our calculations to be wrong and cause us to dangerously overfill the tank. We do have have pressure relief valves and gauges we attach when filling the tank but we would like it if we do not have to waste any expensive and precious regent grade n-butane by purging some to the environment in the event that we do overfill if we don’t have to.

      Also what is up with the shit tastick pressure / vacuum gauge on the g5 twin, can those be replaced with better ones? I imagine they could be, we used to use a Promax RG410a and that had rather decent gauges for monitoring the process, Yeah it took awhile longer to do a run though with the promax recovery unit, we had to buy extra gauges since we started using the g5 twin and mount more ports onto our vessels for them.

      anyhow I hope , We really are digging the automated pnumatic valve manifold you built on your current rig, gotta say it is a very nice looking automated system you have there, we are considering having you build us a head and automation controller like you have built for yours when we can afford such a thing, it would increase the safety of operating the unit enough to justify the cost. We also were wondering about the possibility of bringing or sending you samples for analysys with your GMS so we have some very good data to put onto labels for larger batches,

      Reply

      • Love to compare notes on another recovery pot, as ours is over priced.

        That is a long time for recovery with an Appion 5 and your yield seems low. We should talk more, perhaps we can improve both?

        We may be able to give it a boost using heat and cold in concert with the pumps, and your recovery efficiency may be improved with smaller diameter columns and by using more flushes and shorter soaks.

        You are allowed a 80% fill on a 50# pot. The WC on my 50# pots says 47.7#, so that is 38.16 lbs at 80% fill.

        Water weighs .0361 lbs per cubic inch, so that is 1057 cubic inches of water,, which at 231 cu/in gallon, is about 4.6 gallons.

        At a specific gravity of .601, 4.6 gallons if n Butane would weigh about 22.9 lbs.

        The Appion gauges are a joke, which I just ignore altogether and use a separate 4″ face gauge that I picked up at the refrigeration supply store.

        I also just leave both Appion valves wide open, and use the systems control valves.

        When we get our shack finished and our GC up and running, we will be happy to corroborate with you on your experiments.

        For a sampling service on a regular basis, we have agreed to lease out the available spare time to Carla Kay LLC, who will be in that business and will be more than happy to run samples at a reasonable price. She is also the lessee of the automated Mk II Terpenator and will be selling extraction and formulation services as well.

        Do I infer that you are in the Portland area?

        Reply

      • No we are located in WA, all of us are complaint under Chapter 69.51a RCW here and our state allows specifically for concentrates like OR does. We plan on providing portable extraction services for our community up here once we have things dialed in better. We are currently using double boiler to heat our evaporation vessel and using a cooler and medical cold packs from the freezer to cool the recovery tank, in the near future we will be moving forward with building a portable keggerator like system for cooling the reclaim tank.

        I am thinking that the biggest reason for the long time on our runs is we only have 5 liters of n-butane in our tank and the 4ft columb holds 2.5 liters, so after we fill column and overflow it by a single volume then let it sit and soak before draining each time we have to then reclaim all of that solvent back to our tank before we can do another pass through and soak, also another link in the process taking extra time is that we are only using 1/4″ recovery hose at 36″ length as well as an filter dryer before the G5 twin, I believe from user comments and appian manual that 3/8″ hose on vacuum side is more efficient and also recommends removing the gas dryer, (i don’t want to water up my butane though) … Do you have an email address we can communicate through? I could send you images of our system and such.

        The pressure vessels we were looking at are called Cornelius kegs, they have wide mouth openings, they are 304 stainless steel, suitable for 135 psi / -30″ Hg at a variety of temperatures. We are looking at sets of both 5 gallon and 2.5 gallon ones costing between 25 – 75$ apiece. We are also shopping around prices on what it would cost to have these electropolished and fitted with 3/4″ tri clamp ferrels welded onto the bottom low point for attaching sanitary ball valve for easy clean out, We plan on using a spinning spray ball to do the hot alcohol wash at 30- 60 psi after a run is done to get all the extract off the side walls, dip tubing and clean the system for another run, we plan to collect the alcohol / extract solution in a 1 liter PFA beaker and do our best to bake off and reclaim the alcohol using a method similar to what you have shown on here hot oil bath in pressure cooker, ice-water bath on copper coil in salad bowl, we are concerned though at the amount of time this would add to being able to deliver a finished product as opposed to using a FEP liner and simply freezing the liner to break the extract free of it so we can funnel it into a dispensing mechanism for putting into 1/2 dram tincture vials.

        Reply

        • You can contact me directly at graywolfslair1@gmail.com.

          I use a 3/8 vacuum line and added a small filter dryer to protect the pump. When you blow through your filter dryer, how much back pressure do you feel?

          Sounds like you are on the right track. I’ll share any further insight after I see your rig.

          Thanks for the insight on the pressure vessel! I’ll check out the Cornelius kegs.

          The primary reason that we wash our extract out with alcohol, instead of using a bag, is that we winterize anyway.

          Look forward to further discussion.

          Reply

          • Posted by $ean on July 18, 2012 at 8:46 PM

            Hello GW,

            Before I start asking you a bunch of questions, I’d like to first say THANK YOU for the noble work that you and your team are doing! I have a huge amount of admiration for the innovative contributions that the entire Skunk Pharm Research team has made thus far in our mutual field of interest, and in particular, on your development of the Terpinator. I for one truly do appreciate your willingness to share your ideas with the rest of us. I hate to make generalizations about the MJ community at large, as there are some wonderful people within our community, but finding your educated, technically savvy Skunk Pharm group is definitely a breath of fresh air outside of the usual cloud of smoke that I’m accustomed to. :-)

            I am currently following your instructions on how to build my own Terpinator with the safety and automation features you’ve developed. I opted to go the automated route mainly due to the additional safety that it provides. The impetus for this was when an acquaintance of mine, who has been doing standard BHO extractions for years, was recently VERY badly burned in a BHO extraction accident at his home. He was doing an extraction in his back yard when an air conditioning unit switched on, igniting the butane, which burned him so badly that he’s been in the ICU for almost a month now with 3rd degree burns all over his body. I’ve heard of these kinds of accidents before, but it really hits home when it happens to someone you know personally. His legs were the most badly burned part of his body and he is still not expected to be able to walk for another 2-3 months from now. My wife was so shaken by this event that she has prohibited me from doing any BHO extractions until I have the Terp built. She’s big on safety and doesn’t want me taking any unnecessary risks, especially on account that we have a newborn baby girl. I told my wife that so long as I build my Terpinator using Skunk Pharm’s automation design, the device shouldn’t pose any more danger to us than a propane fired BBQ. That may be an exaggeration, but I thought it sounded good at the time. Would you agree with that analogy yourself? I realize that the Terpinator has more points at which a failure could occur, but I figure that since butane is a low pressure gas and propane is a high pressure gas, the danger factor of using each one kind of balances out in the end. I hope this isn’t just wishful thinking on my part.

            I am fully committed to completing this project and I have purchased the majority of the Terp’s components already, and I could probably run it manually now with what I’ve got, but I’d like to wait and set it up right the first time with the automation and added safety. However, I’ll need some more information from you in order to do that.

            If you would be so kind to respond back to me, please shed some light on the following three topics from the numbered list below:

            1. I ordered the 3 pressure switches from Wasco on Monday. However, I was reviewing your Butane System Process Logic sheet again last night and I noticed that the pressure switch values on the logic sheet differ from the written text directly above your Wasco invoice. The text above your Wasco invoice says “-19 Hg, -22 Hg, and -29.5 Hg. The logic sheet says -10 Hg, -22 Hg, and -29.2 Hg. Will you please clarify which values are the correct ones? Something tells me that I probably submitted my order to Howard at Wasco with the wrong preset values requested, since I asked for one of the pressure switches set at -19 Hg instead of -10 Hg. Having it set at -10 Hg seems to make more sense.

            2. I found the 5 Asco solenoid valves from your parts list on the Paramount Supply website, but they don’t sell the Triac valves that you have displayed on the same list. In fact, they don’t carry the Triac brand at all, at least according to their website they don’t. Which supplier did you use to purchase your Triac’s from? It looks like industrialcontrolsonline.com has everything on your list. Before I purchase the Triac’s from them, I’d like to first confirm with you that I should be buying the 60 psi valves and not the 80 psi valves. It is the 60 psi valves that I want, correct?

            3. Would anyone you know be interested in building a controller for me for a reasonable fee as a side job? I realize that Skunk Pharm isn’t supposed to do retail sales outside of Oregon, which I understand. I live in NorCal and would be willing to fly into Portland to pick up the controller if necessary. I’ve got too much time and money invested in this project to not see it through to completion.

            If that isn’t an option then would you please post a complete parts list for the controller, along with a wiring diagram, and some instruction on how to program it?

            One final thought on the controller: has anyone from your team pondered the idea of using some automation software installed on a Windows or Linux box to drive the entire process? At a minimum, the PLC board and the cycle timers could be eliminated and replaced with a laptop that could be used as the interface and driver for the whole process. This is something I’d like to explore after I get my Terp fully operational. I’d be more than happy to share the software with you once I have it built.

            I apologize in advance for my long message and all of the questions. I’m just super excited about the prospect of getting the Terpinator fully functioning. Thanks in advance for your assistance!

            –SM

          • Thanks for the good thoughts and congratulations on building your own system!

            As far as safety goes, the Terpenator is a fully enclosed system, much like the refrigeration systems that use R600 or R600A as the refrigerant. It is perfectly safe until something goes wrong, goes wrong, goes wrong…………….

            We still treat it with the same safety care that we use when processing with a simple flow through column, just in case something does go wrong. That means we use it outdoors or in a exhausted ventilation cabinet, away from any ignition sources.

            Please read http://skunkpharmresearch.com/butane-safety/

            1.0
            The values that you need are -10hg, -22hg, and -29.5hg. You may tell Howard to ship you one of the two extra sets that he ran and preset for Skunk Pharm Research. He will remember the transaction and it should cut through any misunderstandings about what you want.

            Do make sure you are clear with Howard, because we miss-communicated on my first order, hence the extras.

            2.0
            Triac is the pneumatic operator for the valves. I got them at Paramount. Their Portland number is (503) 232-4137; ask for Bob.

            The valves are 1000 psi. The question on the Triacs, is what air pressure do you have available to operate them with.

            3.0
            Skunk Pharm Research is strictly non commercial, except for our lease program, and I am retired from marketing my time and skills, but you may be in luck. Our MK II controller was built and donated to our MMJ program free of charge, by Pacific Semiconductor in Portland. PSI makes control systems for elevators

            Bob, the semi retired owner agreed to build units for others at a reasonable price, but hadn’t established that price last time I talked to him. Please feel free to call him at PSI, 503-274-2471 to negotiate your own deal.

            3.5
            We are currently looking at a MKIII controller using a laptop and Arduino controls, and plan to license another company to build the complete Terpenator Mk III system for retail. It will still need an interface relay board, because of the amperages some of the motors and heaters draw.

            If you look at the board that PSI built, the PC relay board and power supply are the only PSI proprietary component; the rest of the pieces are off the shelf.

            Although he made his own regulated power supply, they are available off the shelf. Bob built it to save money, and because he is one of those old school electronics geeks, that can build anything from a military radar to a stereo system, out of a pile of parts and mostly from memory.

            The PC relay board could also be eliminated, by simply using the same Crydom solid state relays for the pneumatic valve solenoids, as we did for the two motors and the 1200 watt heater.

            He picked the Panasonic PLC because it was a unit that he uses in elevators and was familiar with. In industry I used GE or Modicon PLC’s, so it sort of depends on what industry. We are liking the Arduino for the next generation, because of price, capabilities, and ease of programming for the average brother or sister.

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